Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Earth Science Chpt. 11
Terms in this set (57)
What is Deformation?
the bending, tinting and breaking of Earth's Crust
Deformation occurs when?
when the weight of part of the Earth's crust changes
What is asthenosphere?
the plastic part of the mantle
What happens when parts of the lithosphere thicken and become heavier?
the lithosphere sinks deeper into the asthenosphere
What happens to the lithosphere if parts of it thin and become lighter?
the lithosphere rises higher into the asthenosphere
A condition of gravitational and buoyant equilibrium between Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere
How often do isostatic adjustments occur in mountainous regions?
all the time; constantly
What is the effect of erosion on mountains?
erosion can reduce the height and weight of the mountains
Describe the process of uplift?
as a mountain becomes smaller it rises
Describe the process known as subsidence?
in any ares where rivers are depositing mud, dirt or rocks the added weight can make the ocean floor to sink
When glaciers and ice sheets melt, what happens to the land they covered and to the ocean floor?
the land will rise and the ocean floor will sink
What changes occur in rock in the Earth's crust as the lithosphere moves?
It is squeezed, stretched and twisted
What is stress?
the amount of force exerted on each unit of area
the type of stress that squeezes and shortens a body
What else does compression do besides reducing the amount of space that a rock takes up?
compression pushes rocks higher up or deeper down into the crust
Where is one place where compression occurs?
where tectonic plates collide
What does the type of stress known as tension do?
stretches and pulls a body apart
When tension pulls rocks apart, the rocks...?
Where is one place that tension occurs? (happens)
at divergent boundaries
What effect does shear stress have?
it distorts a body by pushing bodies into different directions
What happens to sheared rocks as they slide past each other?
the sheared rocks bend, twist or break
Where is shear stress common? (where does shear stress happen the most?)
at transform boundaries where tectonic plates are sliding past each other
What is strain?
any change in shape or volume of rock caused by stress
The amount of stress a rock can withstand(handle) without changing its shape is...?
Materials that break as a result of stress are said to be?
Materials that bend or deform without breaking as a result of stress are said to be?
What affects whether a rock is brittle or ductile?
the composition--what minerals are in the rock
WHat other TWO factors also affect how rock will deform?
temperature and pressure
In what way will rock deform at lower temperature and pressure and at higher temperature and pressure?
In higher temperature and pressure the rock will deform because it will be ductile. In lower temperature and pressure the rock will deform because it will be brittle
What is a fold?
a bend in rock layers that results from stress
Where are rock folds most easily observed(seen)?
flat layers of rock were compressed inward
Which of the following is true of folds?
Sometimes cracks appear, but most of the time the rock layers remain intact (together with no cracks)
What are the four factors that determine the type of strain that stress will cause to rocks?
temperature, pressure, the amount of force and how quickly the force is applied
What are two types of stress that can cause a fold?
Shear stress and compression stress
If a fold appears to be lying on its side, the fold is said to be...?
Why is each fold unique?
a combination of stress and conditions
(just like how every car accident is different)
a fold in which the oldest layer is in the center, arch shaped
a fold in which the youngest layer is in the center, bowl shaped
a fold in which both limbs are horizontal or almost horizontal
a large, narrow strip of elevated land, can occur near mountains
How do monoclines form?
one part of a rock layer undergoes a vertical stress and the other areas don't
sometimes a large anticline forms
What type of fold may cause a valley?
What two types of folds formed the ridges and valleys of the Appalachian Mountains?
anticline and syncline
stresses on rock close to Earth's surface, where temperatures and pressures are low, may cause the rock to...?
a break around which there is no movement of the surrounding rock
a break along which one block slides relative to another
the surface along which the motion occurs in a fault
the rock above the rock plane in a nonvertical fault
the rock below the fault plane
What kind of landforms can normal faults form?
steep step like formations
How does a reverse fault form?
the hanging wall moves UP over the footwall
what is a thrust fault?
the fault plane is at a low angle and the hanging wall just slides over it (like a reverse fault, but at a lower angle)
Where are reverse faults and thrust faults common? (where can you normally find them)
steep mountains-like The Rockies and The Alps
What does the strike of a fault describe?
the direction and length of where the faults are moving
What is a strike-slip fault?
rock on either side slides horizontally(up and down) because of shear stress
What is one example of a large fault system?
St. Andreas Fault in California
Sets found in the same folder
GMO- ch. 11
Earth Science SOL Review: Topography
SOL Study Guide - ES.13
ES.13 Vocabulary Words - Weather
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 11, Section 1
Cha 11 Test Review
38 questions Earth
Earth Science Chapter 11 Test
Other sets by this creator
Other Quizlet sets
Human Biology : Chapter Four Terms
Den 110 D chp 38 quiz
LR question stems