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US History Review (regents)
Terms in this set (93)
a system of government in which people make their own laws = representative gov.
examples: Mayflower Compact and House of Burgesses
Proclamation Line of 1763
Stated that no colonists could settle in lands to the west of the Appalachian mountains-- made the colonists very upset
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press.
Declaration of Independence
* Document adopted on July 4, 1776.
* Established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain.
* Thomas Jefferson wrote most of it.
* Explained to the world why we wanted our freedom.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
2 Precedents of George Washington
1. Stay Neutral
2. 2 terms of presidency
a person opposed to the ratification of the US constitution, and wanted a bill of rights to be added.
supporters of the constitution during the debate over its ratification; favored a strong national government
a change to the Constitution
two thirds vote on house of congress and three fourths vote of the states legislatures, check by legislature on judiciary
3rd President of the United States. He wrote the Declaration of Independence.
**Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Created the national bank, took over state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
The Great Compromise
created two houses in Congress; one based on population (Virginia Plan) and the other gave equal representation (new Jersey Plan) to each state.
approval, say yes
Three Fifths Compromise
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining representation in the House of Representatives.
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments. Supreme law of the land.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to help Americans understand that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.
a legislature consisting of two "houses"
people that advise the president and help set policy for the nation--an example of the unwritten Constitution
customs, traditions, practices not written in constitution that are part of our system of government--ie. the cabinet and two term limit.
population count every 10 years, to determine the number of representatives in Congress for each of the states.
Checks and Balances
The power of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government to block some acts by the other two branches--ie. the veto, declaring a law unconstitutional, or impeaching a president.
French philosopher who argued that liberty was best protected by separation of powers
the body of electors who formally elect the United States President and Vice-president
House of Representatives
One of the two parts of Congress. Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state's population--has the power to impeach
Formal accusation against a president or other public official, the first step in removal from office.
the power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
the belief that the United Statesshould stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Included the
Mississippi River and
New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping).
a large area of land that is flat and grassy between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains
Chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of **judicial review.
Compromise of 1850
admitted California as a free state based on popular sovereignty (people voted)
As president he opposed the Bank of US, did not allow individual states to nullify federal laws, was responsible for the Indian Removal Act, the "Trail of Tears". Created Spoils System
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated/freed the slaves. Main goal was to preserve the Union
the movement to end slavery
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. He sued for his freedom when he lived in a free state. The ruling on the case was that he was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws that separated people of different races in public places in the South
a period after the civil war when the US worked to bring the country back together and the southern states were subject to a federal military presence
13th, 14th, 15th Amendments
The three amendments to the Constitution that resulted from the Civil War and abolished slavery, guaranteed civil rights, and guaranteed blacks the right to vote
a growth and celebration African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American--ie. Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington
a Harlem Renaissance poet who wrote about the lives of African Americans.
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Open Door Policy
The idea that all countries should have the right to open trade with China-this was directed toward other imperialist countries. U.S. wanted to prevent countries from setting up separate spheres of influence within China, thereby blocking potential U.S. trade opportunities.
Period of reform from 1890s-1920s. Opposed waste and corruption, for social justice, general equality, and public safety: Sherman Anti-trust Act, President Theodore Roosevelt, Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle", Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906.`
"survival of the fittest", laissez-faire capitalism = Rockefellar, Carnegie, Vanderbuilt
rich business owners who would under pay their workers to make more money
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company), Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities), and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
18th amendment: a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933 -- ends with 21st amendment
Dorothea Dix, Jane Addams, and Jacob Riis --tried to improve lives of poor, underserved in society
the right of women to vote W/ 19th amendment in 1920
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in Upstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, tried to get women rights for women, especially the right to vote.
A movement for social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to fight the power of the railroads in the late 19th century
Party formed by farmers, regulate railroad rates and wanted currency based on silver
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs; supported Washington's goal for US neutrality in Americas
World War One
War fought because Germany was interfering with American freedom of the seas.
A period in which people/businesses are financially successful and growing.
became president in 1928, just before the onset of the Great Depression; blamed for the market crash; actions taken were criticized as too little too late
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s.
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
limited the number of people coming into the United States from certain countries
The name given to the program of "Relief, Recovery, Reform" begun by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933 to bring the United States out of the Great Depression.
Congress created the Works Progress Administration in 1935-- spent $11 billion on federal works projects and provided employment for 8.5 million persons. They built roads, bridges, schools, etc., but the also funded projects for thespians, artists, writers, and young people.
President from 1932 to 1944; Created New Deal reforms to fight the Depression; Established Social Security; helped the homeless & unemployed; Federal Deposit Insurance Company; Security & Exchange Commission; Civil Conservation Corp (CCC); Led US through WWII; Established United Nations; Led US from isolationism to internationalism; America became a superpower
World War Two
Event that brought the United States completely out of the Great Depression, we entered because of Japanese bombing at Pearl Harbor
The Cold War
period following WWII until the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s.This was a period when much of the world was divided by the communist/non-communist battle for military and political superiority.
Time of tension between US and USSR
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions. Its spread was our biggest fear after WW2!
American policy of fighting the spread of communism around the world
A period during the Cold War where the American public was terrified of Communists and the spread of Communism.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Made the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945 to end WWII. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
a main highway that crosses the entire country, either from east to west or south to north--sponsored by D. Eisenhower
John F Kennedy
events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963
Plan of President Kennedy(JFK) , American volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
President who escalated Vietnam War, signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. War on Poverty, medicare and Medicaid.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program. In 1965, Congress passed many measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
Marbury V Madison
this case establishes the Supreme Court's power of judicial review
Korematsu v US
This supreme court case followed the movement of 100,000 Japanese Americans moved to internment camps; the case upheld the US govt's internment policy as justified in wartime.
Schenck V US
1919; conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during WW1. Justice Holmes declared that gov't can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
Plessy V Ferguson
Supreme Court case (1896) Legalized segregation under the Constitution with the concept of "separate but equal."
Brown V Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Miranda V Arizona
1966 ruling that upon arrest, a suspect has the "right to remain silent" and the right to consult with a lawyer.
Tinker v. Des Moines
"Students do not shed rights at the school gate", The case that ruled that students do not lose Constitutional rights when they entered the building but they can be limited if they cause a disruption
This contraversial 2001 law allows anti-terrorism authorities to monitor e-mail and Internet traffic in order to prevent terrorist attacks. The government argues that cyberspace is public domain and that no warrants should be needed to access information.
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
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