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Why unified Iran?

Warriors, priests, peasants

What were the 3 social classes in ancient Iran?

Taurus, Caucasus, Zagros, Mediterranean

What were geographical factors in Iran?

Isolation from rest of world

The Greek Dark Age was a period of what?

Access to foreign markers, cultural features that emerged, trade connection

Why did Greece prosper through resource poor?

Humanity is in a constant cosmic struggle, world in is battle of good vs. evil, monotheistic, does not believe in reincarnation

What are the tenets of Zoroasterism?

20 provinces each under a satrap

What was the Persian approach to ruling diverse peoples?

Grain, olive trees, grapevines, wheat

What were the primary crops of Greece?


How did Darius use art and sculpture?

Treated as pawns, though they could "have their own pawns," struggle for power

Characterize the Persian women of the elite class.

Connector, not a barrier

How did the Greek view "the sea?"

They were entirely dependent on rainfall

How did the Greeks water their crops?

People still had rights though they were viewed as slaves

How did Darius body of law affect subject peoples?

Exsercise of political privaledge for wealthier members of society

Define oligarchy.

Contact between the Agean Sea and Middle East, Invasion from the north

What began the Greek Archaic period?

Villages merged and became centers

What did the greek population explosion lead to?

Value on uniqueness, talents of the individual

What were the characteristics of humanism?

Values and weights defined by the state, showed wealth

Why were coins significant?

They built oracles and made sacrifices

How did the Greeks communicate with their deities?


Clashes between city-states let to the rise of Greek infantrymen called what?

Learned quickly, could add vowels to use in communication without needing to memorize

Why was the Phoencian alphabet so beneficial to the Greeks?

What was the usual form of worship that the Greeks used for their gods?

Sacrifice of goods or animals

Evelvated place of refuge

Define acropolis.

Gathering place or open air market

Define agora

Trade opportunities, increased population, technological achievements

What were the characteristics of the recovery of the Archaic Period?

All free adult males over 21

Who participated in Greek democracy?

Xenophenes: how the world was created and made out of what
Pythagorus: math and philosophy advancements
Thalles: world had been all water at one point

Who were some pre-Socratic Greek philosophers and with what were they concerned?

People who used cleverness to distort of manipulate reality using argument

Who were the sophists?

There was a half-century of chaos, officers scrambled to regain control of three kingdoms

What happened to Alexander's empire after he died?


What was the symbol of Athenian navy success?


According to Democritus, what was the world composed of?

Marry in culture, establish Greek-style cities, leave cooperative officials in place

What policies did Megas Alexandros use to control his empire?


Who was the father of history in the West?

Mesinians made into life-long slaves, no money around, raised men to be obediant slaves from young age

Describe the Spartan city-state.

Athens and Sparta cam out as major powers, Persia never threatens Greeks away

What were the results of the Persian war?

Even Greek state had a nation in and of itself, unified only against a common enemy, Greeks did not view themselves as a nation

How did the Peloponnesian war reveal a flaw in the city-state idea?

Women, kids, slaves

Who was not part of Athenian democracy?

Alexandria in Egypt

What was the greatest Hellenistic city?

Socrates, Plato (diversity of nature, no democracy but philosopher king), Aristotle (wrote about everything, "Poetics"), Epicurus (taught in garden, strict life, greatest pleasure was the epiphany), Xeno (created the Stoic school)

List Greek philosophers and their contributions.

Aristarcus (argued earth was on an axis, sun is the center), Hypocrates (physician), Pythagorus, Archimedes (invented defenses against Romans at Sicily, buoyancy), Hyron of Calcedom (invented the lie detector, anatomy), Euclid (geometry), Aritosthanes (earth was round)

List Greek scientists/inventors/physicians and their contributions.

Sophocles, Euripedes, Aristophanes, Esceles, Sapho, Archilocus

List Greek writers and their works.

Myron (athletes, chariotees), Phideas (Athena and Zeus, giant), Phaxitoles

List Greek sculptors and their works

In search for gold and trade products, Black Sea, Jason, Herculues, Orpheus

What was the purpose of the voyage of the Argo? Who were the participants? When did it take place?

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