Upgrade to remove ads
NES Secondary Professional Knowledge Exam
Terms in this set (98)
Theory: What is Erikson's theory?
Psychosocial Theory of Development -
Individuals experience internal conflicts at various stages of life (crises) which are resolved through interaction with others
Theory: What does Erikson's theory suggest about secondary students?
Competence: Industry vs. inferiority (ages 5~12)
Fidelity: Identity vs. Role Confusion (ages 13~19)
Theory: What can a teacher do to help students based on Erikson's theory?
Help students explore identity, beliefs, careers, and responsibilities. Model career choices. Help students find resources to work out personal problems. Give many "second chances"
Theory: What is Piaget's theory?
Theory of Cognitive Development -
Infants are born with sensory and reflexive skills that they use to engage the environment and ultimately construct mental representations of it
Theory: What does Piaget's Theory suggest about secondary students?
-Concrete Operational (ages 7~11) time, space, and quantity are understood and can be applied but not as independent concepts
-Formal Operations (age 11+) theoretical, hypothetical, and counterfactual thinking,
abstract logic and reasoning
Theory: What can a teacher do to help students based on Piaget's theory?
Concrete Operational Student: use props, visual aids, manipulatives, well-organized presentation, use familiar examples
Formal Operational Student: continue to use concrete operational teaching, hypothetical questions, scientific reasoning, teach broad concepts not just facts, inwards reflection
Theory: What is Vygotsky's Theory?
Social Development Theory - children's thought structures develop through interaction with individuals in their environments, informed by the culture in which they live
Theory: What does Piaget's Theory suggest about secondary students?
Work within students' ZPD
Theory: What can a teacher do to help students based on Vygotsky's theory?
-accessibility to tools that support thinking
-build on cultural funds of knowledge
-utilize dialogue and learning groups
providing sufficient support to promote learning when concepts and skills are being first introduced to students.
-a compelling task
-templates and guides
-guidance on the development of cognitive and social skills
The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what they can do with help
Theory: What is Kohlberg's Theory?
Stages of Moral Development -
Moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor
Theory: What does Kohlberg's Theory suggest about secondary students?
Secondary students will fall somewhere in these levels:
-Interpersonal accord and conformity
-Authority and social-order maintaining orientation
-Social contract orientation
Theory: What can a teacher do to help students based on Kohlberg's theory?
examine their dilemmas, see others' perspectives, help students really listen to each other, and ensure your class reflects concern for moral issues and values
Development: What 3 areas of development occur in secondary students?
3) Socioemotional (including moral)
Development: How does development contribute to early adolescent's (10~14) behavior?
-adolescents seeking peers with similar values and recognition/attention/status
-risky activities emerge
-if academic problems become more pronounced then frequent failure leads to less engagement in school activities
Development: How can you help failing students and students falling behind?
-Suggest and demonstrate effective study strategies
-extra academic support for those struggling
-provide a regular time and place for them to seek guidance and advice on academic or social matters
-provide opportunities for adolescents to make decisions
-hold them accountable for their actions and provide appropriate consequences
Development: How does development contribute to late adolescent's (14~18) behavior?
-associating with "bad" peers
-vast differences in interest of educational tracks
-students in extracurricular activities tend to stay in school longer
-sexual activity and parenting
-neighborhoods/ communities with opportunities / local cultures
Development: How can you help late adolescents' development?
-Communicate caring and respect for all
-Allow choices in subjects, but have high standards
-provide guidance / assistant for low achievers
-help students explore higher education opportunities and career paths
-encourage extracurricular activities
-get them involved in their communities
Vocabulary: synaptic pruning
the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty in many mammals
MEANING: improvements in memory and attention
Development: How does the brain develop during adolescence?
-planning and decision making skills
-faster cognitive processing
-improved memory and attention
-matured motor and speech functions
Development: How can a teacher support brain development in secondary students?
1)analyze and regulate emotions
2)support new interest in passions
3)acknowledge positive features of adolescents' new found interests and passions
4)ask them to think about future consequences of their actions
5)steer them away from risky events
6)encourage abstract thinking
7)encourage students to express themselves emotionally and empathize
Development: How can a teacher support secondary students emotionally through their biological development?
1)Be supportive and optimistic about their abilities and potential for success
2)be patient and help them present themselves well to others
3)provide safe outlets for risk-taking
4)avoid scare tactics but deter them from dangers
5)let them experiment with adult-like roles
the practice or principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it
Development: What outside influences affect students' development?
1) family structure
2) cultural background
3) family livelihood
4) parenting styles
5) disruptive influences
6) maltreatment (report to CPS)
9) behavior toward authority figures
10) valued activities
11) Conceptions of time
Development: What are some examples of differentiated instruction?
1)using multiple methods to deliver instruction
2)providing tiered activities and problems
3)presenting both concrete and abstract examples of concepts
4)offering a range of resource materials
5)planning small-group and team activities
6)developing learning contracts with students
7)planning and developing enrichment and remediation activities
8)using portfolios to assess student growth
Development: How can you encourage self-esteem of your students?
1) value and accept all pupils for attempts and accomplishments
2) create a safe environment
3) become aware of personal biases
4) model appropriate behaviors of self-criticism, perseverance, and self-reward
5)avoid destructive comparisons and competition, have students compete with their own prior levels
6)set up support groups / study buddies, teach students how to encourage each other
7) and many more (see study guide Chapter 1)
Vocabulary: Constructive (as in... learning is constructive)
children are active participants in the construction of knowledge and use experiences to construct understanding of the world
Vocabulary: Classical Conditioning
when a neutral stimulus gets associated to something else (Pavlov)
hint: think association
Vocabulary: Operant Conditioning
reinforcing or punishing behaviors, such as assigning grades, might want to limit external rewards to promote intrinsic motivation
hint: think rewards & punishments
Instructional: What are 5 constructivist strategies to support learning?
1) Embed learning in complex, realistic, and relevant learning environments
2) Provide for social negotiation and shared responsibility as a part of learning
3) Support multiple perspectives and use multiple representations of content
4) Nurture self-awareness and an understanding that knowledge is constructed
5) Encourage ownership in learning
Theory: What is the Multiple Intelligence Theory?
Intelligence can be put into 8+ categories and varying amounts of any combination.
hint: no need to memorize, just understand
Instructional: What are 3 categories of learning styles?
1) visual vs. kinesthetic vs. aural
2) holistic vs. analytic
3. impulsive vs. reflective
reflecting on thinking and knowledge; thinking about thinking
Instructional: How can teachers promote metacognition in students?
1) teach and model effective strategies for learning
2) scaffolding :)
3) explore multiple perspectives
4) promote self-regulated learning
5) emphasize the critical thinking process and reflection instead of memorization and recall
Instructional: What are 4 strategies to help long-term retention?
(remembering things for a long time)
3) organization (my favorite)
4) visual imagery
Instructional: What are some good teaching strategies / How can you scaffold for students?
1) go from simple --> complex tasks
2) offer partly complete examples for students to finish
3) mnemonics, reminders, cues
5) making connections from known to new info
6) provide organizers, outlines, guides, etc.
Vocabulary: Schema building
a representation of a plan or theory in the form of an outline or model; an accumulation of specific knowledge about a topic, general world knowledge about how things/people work, and knowledge about the topic/text's organization
Instructional: What are two strategies learn verbal information and three strategies to learn procedural information?
1) attention focusing
2) schema building
1) pattern learning
3) part-whole practice
Instructional: How can you support independence and self-regulated learners?
(excluding general "good teaching" strategies)
1) focus on setting goals and tracking progress
2) use multiple-task assignments
3) provide opportunities to work independently
Instructional: What are the 8 roles of a teacher?
1) decision maker
2) problem solver
3) resource person
Instructional: What are the 6 roles of a student?
2) active listener
4) self-directed learner
Instructional: How can a teacher incorporate students' families and communities into education?
1) recognizing when a family's resources are limited
2) parent education workshops
3) being alert to a student's changes as an indicator of family hardship
4) providing programs that encourage positive student interaction with the community
Instructional (?): Student learning is best supported when schools have what?
1) the desire for student learning
2) a plan for school growth and development
3) effective leadership
4) high quality resources
5) sufficient budgets
6) professional development programs
7) An effective assessment system
8) educated and committed staff
Instructional: What are 3 general grouping types?
1) grouping by age/development level (like grade levels)
2) Ability grouping
3) inclusive classrooms (special needs + non-disabled peers together)
Diversity: What are ways to be an inclusive and non-discriminating teacher?
1) be flexible in grouping strategies
2) make sure all students are challenged
3) be careful about how you respond to low-achieving students in class
4) use materials that show a wide range of ethnic groups
5) make sure your teaching doesn't reflect racial, ethnic, or gendered stereotypes/prejudices
6) evaluate fairly
7) believe and hope for all students
8) monitor your nonverbal behavior too
Diversity: What are ways a teacher can support an ELL student?
1) model and teach academic vocabulary and standard English grammar
2) help students understand when standard grammar is required and when vernacular is okay
3) modify grading for excusable language errors
Diversity: How can a teacher support a student with ADHD?
1) provide a quiet environment
2) allow extra time
3) encourage notes and organizational tools
4) regularly check progress
5) in some cases ignore minor inappropriate behaviors while encouraging or rewarding on-task ones
Diversity: How can a teacher support a student with speech and communication disorders?
1) consult with the school's speech-language pathologist
2) modeling appropriate language
3) expanding or recasting their utterances
4) patiently waiting for them to communicate a thought
5) repeating what they have said to ensure that they were understood
6) assistive technology, such as talking books or voice-output devices.
7) encouraging the use of graphic organizers or other tools to structure information and guide comprehension
8) offer visual materials
9) modify assessments to reduce the amount of writing necessary
Diversity: How can a teacher support a student with intellectual disabilities?
1) help these students develop life skills necessary for transitioning from school to community (e.g., money or time management, goal setting, personal care).
2) provide individual instruction
3) scaffolded activities :)
4) simplified instructions
5) extra time to complete tasks
6) explicit connections between concepts
Diversity: How can a teacher support a student with autism spectrum disorder?
1) reducing distractions,
2) providing structured daily schedules to keep students focused,
3) teaching memory strategies
4) encouraging participation in group projects and extracurricular activities to build friendships and practice social skills
5)acknowledging and rewarding positive behaviors
Diversity: How can a teacher support a student with emotional and behavioral disorders?
1) talk to the student directly, especially if any warning signs are shown
2) service learning activities in which they feel a sense of agency and commitment to the community
3) programs and interventions that model and teach social interaction and conflict resolution skills
4) accommodations that reduce anxiety during assessment, such as extra time or a quiet room for testing
Diversity: How can a teacher support a student with physical or sensory challenges or other health differences?
1) modify classroom materials to be inclusive
2) assistive technology
3) arranging the classroom for mobility and visual communication (
my own input)
Diversity: What can a teacher do outside the classroom to understand student diversity?
1) learn the demographics of the area
2) review community resources for cultural practices of different groups
3) research cultures
4) discuss with colleagues
5) arrange activities to brings students and families to community resources
6) consult and engage with social service agencies
7) consult with special ed teachers
8) take classes on special needs
9) Talk to advocacy organizations
Diversity: What kinds of things can teachers do to include all students in a diverse classroom (challenged through gifted)?
1) Breaking assignments and instruction into smaller, more manageable segments
2) Providing a choice of response formats on assignments
3) Reducing the length of assignments
4) Planning activities that require students to work with partners or in small groups
5) Allowing the use of assistive technology when it is necessary to ensure that all students can participate fully in classroom life and activities
6) Encouraging acceleration within the lesson
7) Offering enrichment opportunities to accompany general class work
8) Providing resources written at higher and lower reading levels
Vocabulary: Informal Assessment vs. Formal Assessment
Informal Assessment: spontaneous, unsystematic observations
Formal Assessment: preplanned, systematic data gathering
Vocabulary: Performance Assessment
involves nonwritten behaviors and/or nonverbal performances
Vocabulary: Criterion-referenced vs. Norm-referenced
Criterion-referenced: indicates mastery or non-mastery (rubric)
Norm-referenced: compares performance to that of peers (bell curve)
Vocabulary: Traditional Assessment vs. Authentic Assessment
Traditional Assessment: assesses learning separate from real-world tasks (taking a test)
Authentic Assessment: assess ability to apply learning to real world tasks (performing a lab experiment)
Vocabulary: Formative Evaluation vs. Summative Evaluation
Formative Evaluation: any evaluation that takes place before or during a project's implementation with the aim of improving the project's design and performance (quizzes, skill checks, etc., think "short term")
Summative Evaluation: the focus is on the outcome of a program (test, reports, concerts, think "long term")
Assessment: What are 6 categories of assessment?
1) informal vs. formal
2) paper-pencil vs. performance
3) standardized vs. teacher-developed
4) criterion referenced vs. norm-referenced
5) traditional vs. authentic
6) formative vs. summative
Instructional: What are the 12 types of instructional strategies?
1) expository instruction
2) direct instruction
3) computer-based instruction
4) teacher questions
6) mastery learning
7) class discussion
8) cooperative learning
10) computer-based research
11) peer tutoring
12) authentic activities
Instructional: what are 6 kinds of cooperative learning?
2) cooperative learning groups
5) peer practice
Instructional: what are 6 kinds of inquiry (experiential) learning?
1) field trips
4) role playing
Vocabulary: Inquiry learning vs. cooperative learning
Inquiry learning: Learning through experiences, hands-on
Cooperative learning: learning within a group or with others
Instructional: What should teachers do to ensure effective group work?
1) pre-assign groups, mixing students with diverse backgrounds, perspectives and skill levels
2) provide a challenging task with a clear goal
3) Assign specific roles if necessary
4) Provide guidelines for group interactions
5) Model and/or directly instruct students about how to scaffold each other's learning
6) Offer individual as well as group feedback
7) Monitor group activity, and mediate and redirect if students ask for help
Instructional: What kinds of roles can technology play in the classroom?
1) technology to replace the teachers (instructional tools)
2) supplemental technology
3) technology for authentic learning
4) technology to support research
5) technology as a tool for communication
Motivation: What sorts of things motivate students intrinsically?
1) activities that make students curious
2) activities that build on their established interest
3) personally relevant activities
4) activities with personally satisfying outcomes
5) activities that are seen as controllable
6) Encouraging realistic challenges and rewarding efforts to achieve them
7) Increasing the students' sense of the value in the task and their expectation of success
Vocabulary: Intrinsic Motivation vs. Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation: being motivated for your own individual reasons
Extrinsic Motivation: Being motivated because of outside factors (like getting a reward or for someone else)
Motivation: What kind of factors affect student motivation?
2) teacher and family expectations
3) peer pressure
5) students' goals
6) grading practices
7) the level of challenge
8) the nature and frequency of feedback
9) student reasoning behind success and failure
Communication: What should a teacher consider about a student when using different kinds of communication?
1) students' age
3) culture and ethnicity
4) linguistic background
Motivation: What are the three factors affect a student's belief they failed/succeeded?
1) locus (internal/external)
Communication: What are some important communication skills?
(TO BE CONTINUED)
Communication: In what ways should teachers communicate feedback and expectations?
(TO BE CONTINUED)
Instructional: For what reasons does a teacher ask questions to the class?
1) Capturing or maintaining attention
2) Developing or assessing interest
3) Evaluating students' preparation and determining prior knowledge
4) Reviewing previous lessons
5) Engaging students in discussion
6) Guiding thinking
7) Developing critical and creative thinking skills
8) Checking for comprehension or level of understanding
9_ Summarizing information
10) Stimulating students to pursue knowledge on their own
Management: What kind of non-academic things should a teacher do to help students feel welcomed/belonging?
1) learn names right away, pronunciation, nick-names, etc.
2) learn interests and goals
3) Emphasize whole-class activities as students get to know one another, then add activities that offer opportunities for collaboration
4) Assign groups with attention to diversity
5) Communicate high expectations for achievement and a commitment to helping all students learn
6) Celebrate all students' achievements and efforts, not only those who have the highest grades
7) be interested in and respect diversity
Management: What kinds of things will promote good behavior in classroom?
1) Plan and then explain any procedures and routines at the start of the year
2) State rules positively (listen quietly vs. stop talking)
3) Be explicit about prohibited behaviors and give consequences
Management: How can a teacher promote healthy kinds of prosocial behavior?
1) Providing reassurance that conflict is normal and can be a growth experience.
2) Assigning open-ended instructional activities that require problem-solving skills and strategies.
3) Developing a peer mediation program, in which students help each other resolve conflicts.
4) Directly teaching conflict resolution in the classroom. For example, activities that require students to read or act out scenarios offer guided practice in a neutral context.
Vocabulary: prosocial behavior
Prosocial behavior is any action intended to help others. One motivation for prosocial behavior is altruism, or the desire to help others with no expectation of reward
Management: How can teachers prevent misbehavior?
2) being mobile throughout the classroom
3) not stopping the lesson to deal with issues, flow
4) starting lessons with whole group activities
5) keep the lesson moving, always have students doing something
Management: What can a teacher do to address misbehavior?
1) nonverbal cues
2) reminding of rules and what good behavior is
3) being next to the student
4) withholding privileges (operant conditioning)
5) isolation or removal (operant conditioning)
6) assigning detention
7) sending thme to the office
8) directly conversing with the student and/or guardians
Management: How should a classroom be arranged to promote learning?
1) Arrange the room to be consistent with instructional goals and activities
2) Keep high-traffic areas free of congestion
3) Be sure students are easily seen
4) Keep materials and supplies handy
5) Be certain students can easily see instructional presentations and displays
Diversity: What are 5 kinds of family structures to be aware of?
1) single-parent families
2) blended families
3) multigenerational families
4) foster families
5) homosexual families
Ethics: What 4 basic rights do students have?
1) the right to an education
2) the right to individual requirements if you have special needs
3) the right to participate free of gender, racial, religious, ethnic or background discrimination
4) the right to an environment without harassment and violence (verbal/physical/emotional)
Ethics: What responsibilities must a teacher follow, and must a student follow?
teachers must know the laws of the state in which they teach
students must adhere to school rules and regulations
Ethics: What responsibilities are the parents'?
1) their child's attendance
2) educational decision making
3) parents/students have the right to review their student records
4) students have a right to privacy
Ethics: What things violate students' right to freedom of speech?
1) vulgar language
2) language that interferes with learning
3) offensive language
4) certain messages on clothing
5) anything published in a student newspaper
Ethics: What things violate students'/teachers' right to freedom of religion?
1) using religious symbols or organized prayer in public school
2) any prayer that interferes with student learning
3) schools can't sponsor extracurricular religious clubs
4) teachers cannot advocate for or endorse particular religions
Administrative: Describe how the state government plays a role in public education.
The state government is responsible for addressing public policy, financing, and state-mandated content and performance standards. Typically this involves a state board and/or department of education. State departments of education are responsible for the leadership, regulation, and operation of the state education program and the administration of special services. Teachers are responsible for adhering to government requirements but rarely interact directly with the state government
Administrative: Describe how the school district plays a role in public education.
The school district is responsible for setting policies and regulations for school operations, establishing the curriculum, providing necessary resources, and serving as a liaison between the state department of education, the schools, and the community. The school district typically includes a school board, which oversees operations.
Administrative: Describe how the superintendent plays a role in public education.
The superintendent of schools serves as the chief administrator of the school district, responsible for day-to-day operations at the district level. The superintendent works with the school board and the school district staff to ensure the planning and delivery of effective education across schools in the district
Administrative: Describe how the building principal plays a role in public education.
The school or building principal is responsible for day-to-day operations at individual schools. Principals may lead staff development workshops as well as provide performance evaluations for teachers. Principals also implement disciplinary action following student misbehavior. In some cases principals may review or monitor teacher lesson plans or activities.
Administrative: Describe how the department chairpersons and program coordinators plays a role in public education.
Department chairpersons and program coordinators are sometimes employed as liaisons between principals and teachers. They may be responsible for planning or administration of curricular divisions or interdisciplinary programs.
Administrative: Describe how teacher aides and paraprofessionals plays a role in public education.
Teachers' aides and paraprofessionals provide instructional support for teachers. Classroom teachers frequently act as supervisors for the aides and the paraprofessionals they work with
Administrative: What are some other kinds of professional staff in a public school?
guidance counselors, special education professionals, library media specialists, and health workers, often coordinate efforts with teachers to promote student learning and development
Administrative: What are some things teachers are required to do?
1) Providing fair and appropriate instruction for all students, including students with special needs
2) Keeping accurate student records, making them available to students and parents/guardians as requested, and ensuring confidentiality
3) Mandated reporting of child neglect/abuse
4) Fair and appropriate use of resources (don't break copyright laws, etc.)
Professional: Teachers as learners TBC
(TO BE CONTINUED)
Professional: In what ways can a teacher reflect and develop their own teaching skills?
1) portfolio / documentation
2) reflective journal
3) action research projects
4) Assessment and observation by others, including colleagues, supervisors, or critical friends
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
OAE Professional Knowledge (003) 7-12
OAE: Assessment of Professional Knowledge: Adolesc…
OAE: Assessment of Professional Knowledg…
OAE Professional Knowledge 7-12
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
NES Secondary Professional Knowledge Exam
NES 051 Professional Knowledge: Elementary
National Board Certification Standards
National Board Certification Standards
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
OAE Professional Knowledge 001
NES Professional Knowledge Exam
15.3 - India Seeks Self Rule