Upgrade to remove ads
NES Professional Knowledge Exam
Terms in this set (102)
What does Erikson's psychosocial theory of development come from? and what idea is it based on?
psychodynamic perspective. Is based on the idea that individuals experience internal conflicts at various stages in life, and interaction with others in the environment leads to the resolution of those conflicts (often called "crisis")
In Erikson's Theory what is the resolution of each crisis?
the development of the person's sense of self and interactions with the world in the future.
What does Erickson's Theory say about school age crises?
they face tasks that require more individual responsibility, but they also begin to compare their abilities to their peers and the outcomes of their efforts to the expectations of parents and teachers.Their classroom and play activities require self-discipline as their focus shifts from free play to organized games and interactions with rules.
Erickson's theory: How do school age children resolve the crisis?
Some develop a strong sense of industry they can master new tasks and complete challenges successfully. Others resolve this conflict on the side of inferiority; they feel that their efforts or outcomes are inadequate
What is critical to understanding Erickson's Theory?
idea that all conflicts are ultimatrly resolved in one way or another and the outcomes of each then influences how the person tackles the next crisis. However, they continue to revisit the issues in later stages of life.
Erickson's Theory: What are the strategies for encouraging industry in grade-school children?
make sure that students have opportunities to set and work toward realistic goals, give students a chance to show their independence and responsibility, and provide support to students who seem discouraged.
Where does Piaget's theory come from and what does it address?
cognitive-developmental perspectives. It addresses the qualitative changes in children's though processes from infancy through adolescence.
What did Piaget propose?
that infants are born with sensory and reflexive skills that they use to engage the environment and ultimately construct mental representations of it
What did Piaget propose happen first in his stages?
children first develop representational abilities and then learn to manipulate those representations using "operations", which include mental transformations
Piaget says most school age children have developed...
concrete operations-they have moved beyond the preoperation thinking of early childhood and can think logically about concrete, real-life objects and events but cannot yet reason abstractly or think about hypothetical situations
What are some of Piaget's strategies for teaching concrete operational children?
continue to use concrete props and visual aids, especially when dealing with sophisticated material, continue to give students a chance to manipulate and test objects, make sure presentations and readings are brief and well-organized, use familiar examples to explain more complex ideas, give opportunities to classify and group objects and ideas on increasingly complex levels, and present problems that require logical, analytical thinking.
What did Vygotsky argue?
that children's thought structures develop through interaction with individuals in their environments, informed by the culture in which they live. They learn the tools for communicating and the norms of behavior and once internalized, these concepts form the basis for later decision making, reasoning, and other thought processes.
How did Vygotsky think children learn best?
when they are assisted or scaffolded when performing tasks that are not yet possible for them to perform alone but are manageable with guidance. These tasks are in the person's ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development)
Vygotsky: What happens within the ZPD?
individuals who attempt a task that is above their current ZPD do not learn to complete it independently and often cannot complete it even with scaffolding, but tasks in the ZPD that are appropriately scaffolded are soon mastered and can be completed independently
What are suggestions when applying Vygotsky's ideas in the classroom?
Tailor scaffolding to the needs of the students, make sure students have access to powerful tools that support thinking, build on the students' cultural funds of knowledge, and capitalize on dialogue and group learning.
What does Kohlberg's theory emphasize and what does he suggest?
the development of moral reasoning. He suggested that young children reason preconventionally, making judgements about moral behavior based on the likelihood of rewards and punishments
Kohlberg: How do children typically reason?
conventionally, basing moral judgements on conformity to social norms and desire to live up to expectations and follow the rules established by others. Children in this stage have not yet developed their own belief about what is right and wrong; he says this develops in adolescence or later.
Kholberg: How do we support personal and moral development?
help students examine the kinds of dilemmas they are currently facing or will face in the near future. Help students see the perspectives of others, help students make connections between expressed values and actions, safeguard the privacy of all participants, make sure students are really listening to each other, make sure that as much as possible your class reflects concern for moral issues and values.
Principal of development: children develop holistically. What are the appropriate teaching practices?
teachers can plan daily activities and routines to address all aspects of children's development- aesthetic, emotional, intellectual, language, physical, and social. They can create opportunities for children to integrate learning across multiple domains.
Principal of development: child development follows an orderly sequence. What are the appropriate teaching practices?
Practitioners use their knowledge of developmental sequence to gauge whether children are developing as expected and to determine reasonable expectations for children. Educators think about developmental sequences in figuring out what next steps will appropriately challenge children as well as what may not be quite reasonable to expect now.
Principal of development: children develop at varying rates What are the appropriate teaching practices?
The daily schedule gives children opportunities to pursue activities at their own pace. Activities are repeated throughout the year so children can participate according to their changing needs and abilities. Teachers can plan activities with multiple learning objectives to address the wide range of development represented in the group.
Principal of development: children learn best when they feel safe and secure. What are the appropriate teaching practices?
teachers develop close, nurturing relationships with children. Teachers remain with children over time. Children can easily identify a specific adult from whom to seek help, comfort, attention, and guidance. Daily routines are predictable. Changes are explained in advanced. Activities, transitions, and routines respect children's attention span, need for activity, and need for social interaction, and need for attention from caring adults. There's a two-way communication between teachers and families, and families are welcome at school.
Early adolescence (10-14) What you might observe
Physical- onset of puberty, significant growth spurt
cognitive- emerging capacity to think and reason about abstract ideas, preliminary exposure to advanced academic content in specific subject areas
social-emotional- continued (maybe greater) interest in peer relationships, emerging sexual interest, challenges to parents, teachers, and others regarding rules and boundaries, occasional moodiness.
Early adolescence (10-14) Diversity
Considerable variability when they begin puberty.
Academic problems can become more pronounced. Students who encounter frequent failure are less engaged.
Seek out peers whose values are compatible with their own and who will give them recognition and status.
Some begin to engage in deviant and risky activities
Early adolescence (10-14) implications
Suggest and demonstrate effective study strategies
Give those struggling extra academic support they need to be successful
Provide a regular time and place where they can seek guidance and advice about academic or social matters
provide opportunities for them to contribute to decision making in clubs and recreation centers
Hold them accountable for their actions, and impose appropriate consequences when they break rules.
Late adolescence (14-18): What you might observe
Physical- achievement of sexual maturity and adult height, some regular exercise program, eating habits
Cognitive- in depth study of certain subjects. Consideration of career tracks and job prospects
Social-Emotional- Dating, increased independence, questioning of rules and social norms
Late adolescence (14-18): Diversity
Some make poor choices regarding peers
Older adolescents aspire widely differing educational and career tracks
Extracurricular activities- those who do are most likely to stay in school
sexually active and some become parents
different temptations and opportunities
Late adolescence (14-18): Implications
Communicate caring and respect for all adolescents
Allow choices in academic subjects and assingments but hold them to high performance standards
Provide the guidance and assistance that low-achieving students may need to be more successful
Help them explore higher educational opportunities and other career paths
Encourage extracurricular involvement
Arrange opportunities for them to make a difference in their communities with volunteer work and service learning projects
Social development: Dependent on adult approval
Provide positive feedback; reinforce appropriate work habits; communicate child's needs to parents/guardians
Social development: Egocentric
Provide curriculum content that encourages students to recognize other viewpoints; provide opportunities to work in small-group situations
Social development: Unrealistic performance expectations
verify students' understanding of work assignments by having them repeat it in their own words.
Social development: Little attention to detail
ask students to "tell us about" their work; encourage reflection
Social development: Desires help from others who are older or more mature
allow buddy/partner work
Social development: Emotionally volatile
encourage communication about problems and conflict situations; meet individually and/or with small groups for discipline problems; role-play conflicts
Developmental Changes in the Brain During Childhood
The brain strengthens frequently used neurological circuits and allows underutilized connections to shrivel.
Synaptic pruning occurs in waves throughout distinct parts of the brain
The front part of the cortex (closest to forehead), which is used for learning new info, controlling behavior, and planning ahead, undergoes synaptic pruning throughout childhood and adolescence and into adulthood
Myelination continues to protect neurons and speed up the transmission of signals
The two hemispheres of the brain take on increasingly distinct responsibilities
Although synapses are pruned during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, new synapses continue to be formed, reflecting learning through experience
Developmental Changes in the Brain During Childhood: Teaching strategies
Take advantage of children's growing awareness of patterns in their environment.
Encourage children to gain proficiency in more than one language
Informally expose children to advanced cultural and aesthetic systems, such as music, poetry, and geometric patterns
How do children usually describe themselves and their friends?
concrete characteristics. They don't yet engage in abstract thought easily and so don't focus on personal traits or relationships. As they develop cognitively they are more likely to focus on these abstract characteristics, and these changes often lead to changes in their friendship groups and in their sense of self. Sometimes this can have negative affect. Teachers should watch for signs that students are overly critical of themselves and offer positive and honest feedback
Children's entry into organized sports during early elementary grades
children have fairly well developed gross motor skills and coordination that allow them to throw, catch, and run more efficiently. At the same time they are becoming cognitively capable of understanding and following rules that are necessary for playing structured games. Sports in turn foster additional physical development as well as social skills.
What did Piaget contend happens at about the time children enter school?
They make a transition from preoperational thought to concrete operational thought.
Piaget: Preoperational Children
He says that peroperational children are egocentric, swayed by appearances, and have trouble understanding reversible operations. Pouring the same amount of water into a tall class they think it is bigger.
Piaget: Concrete operational children
understand that the amount of water remains the same despite the transformation. They have the ability to seriate (put objects in order), the ability to classify objects based on more than one dimension at a time, and the ability to solve simple logical problems
What do information processing theorists contend during early and middle childhood?
children begin to learn strategies for controlling input and output of information, basic memory strategies,
applying information and processing ideas in the classroom (gaining and maintaining attention)
use signals, reach out rather than call out, make sure the purpose of the lesson or assignment is clear to students, incorporate variety, curiosity, and surprise, ask questions and provide frames for answering,
helping students understand and remember
make sure you have students attention, help students separate essential from nonessential details and focus on the most important information, help students make connections between new info and what they already know, provide for repetition and review info, present material in a clear, organized way, focus on meaning, not memorization,
What to look for in students family structure
-single vs. multiple caregivers
-presence or absence of siblings
-extended family members living in the home
-non relatives living in the home
-children's relationships with other family members
Implications for family structure
accept all heads of family as valued, legitimate caregivers of children. Include extended family members (especially those who appear to be regular caregivers) at school functions. Give youngsters time to be with siblings in times of personal or family crisis.
What to look for in students cultural background
-Language(s) spoken at home
-Children's loyalty to and sense of responsibility for other family members
-Children's attitudes toward cooperation and competition
-Children's and parents' communication styles (whether they make eye contact, ask a lot of questions, are open about their concerns, etc.)
Implications for cultural background
Remember that most children and parents value academic achievement, despite what their behaviors may make you think. Adapt instructional styles to children's preferred ways of interacting and communicating. Consider how families' cultural knowledge and skills might enrich the classroom.
What to look for in students family livelihood
-Presence of a family business that requires children's involvement
-Children in self-care for several hours after school
-Older children and adolescents with part-time jobs
Implications for family livelihood
Take young people's outside work commitments into account when assigning homework
What to look for in students' parenting styles
-Parents' warmth or coldness toward their children
-Parents' expectations for their children's behavior and performance
-Parents' willingness to discuss issues and negotiate solutions with their children
-Possible effects of children's temperaments on parents' disciplinary styles
-Children's interpretations of parents' motives in disciplinary practices
-Cultural values, such as honoring one's elders, that give meaning to parents' disciplinary customs
-Dangers and opportunities in the community that influence the use and effects of a given parenting style
Implications for parenting styles
Acknowledge that most parents have their children's best interests at heart and use disciplinary methods they have seen others use. Recognize that parents often adapt their parenting styles to children's temperaments. With all children, communicate high expectations, show sensitivity to children's needs, and give reasons for your requests.
What to look for in students disruptive influences
-Change in family membership
-Change in residence
-Physical or mental illness in parents or other family members
-Parental alcoholism or substance abuse
-Long-term stress in the family
Implications for disruptive influences
Show compassion for children undergoing a significant family transition. Listen patiently if children want to talk. Realize that some families may quickly return to healthy functioning, but others may be in turmoil for lengthy periods. Seek the assistance of a counselor when children have unusual difficulty.
What to look for in students maltreatment
-Frequent injuries, usually attributed to "accidents"
-Age-inappropriate sexual knowledge or behavior
-Extreme withdrawal, anxiety, or depression
-Excessive aggression and hostile behaviors
-Untreated medical or dental needs
-Poor hygiene and grooming
-Lack of warm clothing in cold weather
Implications of maltreatment
Immediately report possible signs of child maltreatment to a school counselor or principal. Contact Child
Protective Services for advice about additional courses of action that should be followed
Cultural norms and traditions
Students internalize the values and beliefs with which they are raised and display them in their class behaviors. Teachers need to recognize differences in communication style, practices, and beliefs and in some cases alter their own behaviors to be responsive to student or parent/guardian needs
Community support and resources
Community influences come from neighborhoods, schools, the media, and other aspects of the environment. When teachers are familiar with the community in which their schools are located they can better identify and address many factors that influence their students' behaviors
common ways for teachers to plan instructions for students at diverse developmental levels
-using multiple methods to deliver instruction
-providing tiered activities and problems that can be solved in multiple ways, some more structured than others, to ensure that high achieving students are challenged appropriately and that lower achieving students are challenged but not frustrated
-presenting both concrete and abstract examples of concepts
-offering a range of resource materials for students at different reading levels
-planning small-group and team activities and selecting students of different skill levels to work together and scaffold each other
-Developing learning contracts with students, working together to set individual goals
-Planning and developing enrichment and remediation activities
-Using portfolios to assess student growth
Developmental challenges: peer relationships in middle childhood
-children begin to establish consistent and "best" friendships and negotiate within their peer group
-gossip and teasing are more common, and many students experience anxiety about being accepted
-well liked students are labeled as popular
-classroom is more challenging for students that are disliked by many of their peers or who are overlooked or ignored by their peers
How can teachers support and foster positive interactions among students by:
-creating an atmosphere of acceptance and respect for all students
-facilitating entry into the group for neglected or rejected children
-teaching strategies for controlling aggression and for reading the emotions of others
-encouraging students to take leadership roles and model appropriate behavior
-allowing students time and space to work out differences, intervening only if necessary for safety or asked by the students
Developmental challenges: self-esteem
most young children are overly optimistic about their abilities- they think they can do everything! As children begin to compare themselves to their peers during middle childhood, their evaluations become more realistic and in some cases can lead to a decline in self-esteem.
How can teachers help students develop healthy self-esteem?
-encourage students to pursue mastery goals rather than performance goals.
-Making sure students realize that supports is not continent on performance
-reminding students of their strengths and offering concrete examples
-giving honest, balanced feedback in a kind, gentle way
-helping students set goals and provide resources that help them track their own progress
-reducing student focus on physical appearance
Developmental challenges: decision making
most children entering elementary school have been making decisions on their own for many years-what to wear, what to eat, what games to play. Many of these early decisions are based largely on the students' desires. A challenge for them in school, then, is to learn to make decisions by considering their knowledge base, others' needs and feelings, and potential outcomes and consequences.
How can teachers help students learn decision making?
-offering a choice of several different but equally appealing activities and encouraging students to consider the pros and cons of each
-Developing activities that require taking others' perspectives
-providing authentic activities that require students to reflect on a problem, consider or collect evidence to address it, explore options, implement a plan, and then evaluate it.
-Providing relevant background knowledge
-Presenting concrete examples of consequences of different decisions
Instructional strategies and goals for developmental needs and characteristics
-provide resources that students can sense and manipulate
-Illustrate concepts with concrete examples
-enhance motivation by developing instruction relevant to student interests
-Build social skills and perspective taking through cooperative learning
-plan and implement authentic activities that encourage inquiry and problem solving
-assign students to work in small groups, flexibility arranging them to enhance students' skills with peers as well as to provide different perspectives
-Foster a sense of belongingness and civic responsibility by collaborating on projects with community organizations and institutions
Educators believe that learning is...
constructive: children don't simply absorb info exactly as it is presented. Rather they are active participants in the creation of knowledge, using their experiences to develop theories and beliefs about the world and how it works.
what is the earliest for of constructive learning in young children?
What helps children construct knowledge mindfully?
metacognitive skills (ability to reflect on their own learning)
What are the 5 constructivist strategies to support learning?
-embed learning in complex, realistic and relevane learning environments
-provide for social negotiation and shared responsibility as a part of learning
-support multiple perspectives and use multiple representations of content
-Nurture self-awareness and an understanding that knowledge is constructed
-encourage ownership in learning
Learning can be conditioned, what are the 2 central learning processes?
classical and operant
occurs when a formerly neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that naturally or reflexively evokes a behavior or feeling. It can be used effectively in the classroom (turning off lights to get attention, bell signals end of class) but teachers should be aware of situations where negative feelings are conditioned.
occurs when a particular behavior is either reinforced (leading to a recurrence of the behavior) or punished (leading to extinction of the behavior). Research suggests that reinforcing expected behavior is more effective for class management than punishing undesirable behaviors. Teachers should limit the use of external rewards to encourage inartistic motivation.
Learning can be modeled, how do we know
social learning theory proposes that students learn by observing appropriate behavior performed by models
How can you use observational learning?
-model behaviors and attitudes you want your students to learn
-Use peers, especially class leaders, as models
-Make sure students see that positive behaviors lead to reinforcement for others
-Enlist the help of class leaders in modeling behaviors for the entire class
How do we know that students show differences in talents or intelligence?
Gardner proposed a theory of "multiple intelligences" arguing that individuals may have strengths and weaknesses in a variety of different areas (8); linguistic, musical, visuospatial, or interpersonal.
sensitivity to and capacity to discern, logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of reasoning
sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words; sensitivity to the different functions of language
abilities to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre; appreciation of the forms of musical expressiveness
capacities to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations on one's initial perceptions
abilities to control one's movements and to handle objects skillfully
capacities to discern and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and desires of other people.
access to one's own feelings and the ability to discriminate among them and draw on them to guide behavior; knowledge of one's own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligence
abilities to recognize plants and animals, to make distinctions in the natural world, to understand systems and define categories
Strategies that teachers can use to foster student's learning
-making connections between students' existing knowledge and new concepts
-Using concrete examples of abstract concepts
-Relating learning to students' lives
-Engaging students in authentic learning experiences
-providing students with opportunities to make choices and to pursue topics of interest
-using open-ended questions and tasks
-involving students in collaborative work where they share their ideas with their peers
-assigning tasks that require elaboration
Teachers can foster the development of learning strategies by...
-encouraging children to repeat and practice new info and skills
-teaching and modeling effective strategies, including using a think- aloud approach
-providing resources to help with organizations, such as charts or worksheets
-teaching mnemonics that help students organize info into categories or chunks, such as acronyms
-Teaching note-taking and outlining skills to guide reading
-giving students specific questions to ask themselves as they study
-encouraging children to seek help when a task is difficult
-asking children to describe how they are trying to learn and remember
Effective examples of scaffolding
-Structuring assignments to begin with simple tasks and progress to more complex tasks
-offering partly complete examples for students to finish
-Providing mnemonics, reminders, or cues to facilitate encoding and retrieval
-Modeling and directly teaching students to ask themselves questions as they study
-Pointing out connections between new info and info they already know
-providing organizers, outlines, or guides to structure assignments
-Modeling a strategy by thinking out loud
Tactics for learning verbal info
1. attention focusing (making outlines, underlining, looking for headings and topic sentences)
2. Schema building (story grammars, theory schemas, networking and mapping)
3. Idea elaboration (self-questioning, imagery)
When do you use tactics for learning verbal info
-with easy, structured materials; for good readers
-for poorer readers; with more difficult materials
-with poor text structure, goal is to encourage active comprehension
-to understand and remember specific ideas
Tactics for learning procedural info
1. pattern learning (hypothesizing, identifying reasons for actions)
2.self-instruction (comparing own performance to expert model)
3. (part practice, whole practice)
When do you use tactics for learning procedural info
-to learn attributes of concepts
-to match procedures to situations
-to tune, improve complex skills
-when few specific aspects of performance need attention
-to maintain and improve skill
Teachers can help students set appropriate goals and to plan action to achieve them by
-explain and model how to set reasonable goals
-provide resources to track progress toward a goal
-provide resources and teach students strategies for self-evaluation
-model and teach strategies for rewarding successes
-encourage risk-taking while acknowledging that mistakes are common and okay
What are instructional strategies that are effective for fostering self-regulation?
-assigning complex tasks that have multiple steps
-providing opportunities to work independently
-developing cooperative learning projects
Strategies for promoting effective learning and study strategies
-when teaching academic content, simultaneously teach students how to effectively student and remember that content
-suggest a wide variety of strategies-taking notes, thinking of new examples, forming mnemonics, summarizing, administering self-check quizzes, and so on-each of which is apt to be useful in different situations and for different purposes
-scaffold students' attempts to use new strategies-for instance, by modeling the strategies, giving clues about when to use them, and providing feedback on appropriate and inappropriate strategy use
-explain the usefulness of various strategies in an age-appropriate way
-occasionally ask students to study instructional material in pairs or small cooperative learning groups
-ask students to share their strategies with one another
What are common roles for teachers?
What are common roles for students?
how can teachers recognize and accommodate family and community influence on students' learning?
-building school-family partnerships
-recognizing when family resources are limited
-being alert to changes in students' behavior that suggest changes in family structure
-developing parent education workshops or seminars
-recognizing differences in communication style, practices, and beliefs and in some cases altering classroom behaviors or instructional strategies to accommodate student needs
-providing curricular and extracurricular programs that encourage positive interaction with community, address traumatic or controversial events, or offer opportunities that students might not otherwise have
leaning is best supported when schools have...
-a vision for student learning, including a commitment to support and foster growth in all students
-a culture of reflection and evaluation leading to action
-a plan for school growth and development
-effective leadership that fosters growth and makes data-driven decisions
-high quality resources
-professional development programs
-strong links to the community
-an effective assessment system
-an educated and committed staff
Characteristics of teachers that affect student learning
-expectations for student learning (when teachers have high but reasonable expectations, students can rise to the challenge. When teachers have very low expectations, students do also)
-teacher knowledge (to present info effectively and accurately respond to student questions and misperceptions, teachers should have a strong understanding of the content of their discipline. Some studies show that teachers who have advanced content knowledge about their discipline are more effective teachers; other suggest that pedagogical content knowledge is most important)
-teacher organization and management (students learn better in structured, safe environments that emphasize productivity and time on task)
-teacher flexibility (the most effective teachers differentiate instruction, respond to students needs, take advantage of teachable moments, and remain in control during disruptions)
what are some general grouping practices that effect student learning?
-grouping by age or development level (most schools group based on age. Some schools include multi-age or multi-grade classrooms. Students in classes grouped by age typically have a range of abilities
-ability grouping (this remains controversial. but many schools still favor tracking and other forms of ability grouping, current research suggests that both high-achieving and lower-achieving students do well in classrooms where ability levels are mixed, if teachers are attuned to individual student needs and carefully plan classroom activities to address them. Homogenous grouping in typically most effective when students are learning a specific, targeted skill or when the students are gifted and receiving accelerated or enriched education.
-inclusive classroom (those in which students with special needs participate alongside non disabled peers in gen ed classrooms, are frequently the least restrictive environment for students, as specified by federal regulations. Inclusive classrooms help students understand and appreciate diversity, support one another, and work toward challenging goals
When forming classroom groups from a diverse population teachers should follow these guidelines
-include students of differing abilities
-include students who can work together successfully
-establish or help students establish clear guidelines for the group process and for the expected outcomes
-assign individual tasks to encourage collaboration
-assess individual student contribution as well as the group together
How to avoid the negative effects of teacher expectations
-use info about students from tests, cumulative folders, and other teachers very carefully
-be flexible in your use of grouping strategies
-make sure all the students are challenged
-be especially careful about how you respond to low-achieving students during class discussions
-use materials that show a wide range of ethnic groups
-make sure that your teaching does not reflect racial, ethnic, or sexual stereotypes or prejudice
-be fair in evaluation and disciplinary procedures
-communicate to all students that you believe they can learn-and mean it
-involve all students in learning tasks and in privileges
-monitor your nonverbal behavior
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
OAE Professional Knowledge 001
GACE Special Ed-Mild to Moderate Disabilities
NES Secondary Professional Knowledge Exam
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Ch 1: Student Development and Learning- Understand…
HDFS 635 Final Exam
Foundations Ed 250 Final
ECED 410- Final Exam- White
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
NES Secondary Professional Knowledge Exam
OAE Professional Knowledge 7-12
OAE: Assessment of Professional Knowledg…
OAE: Assessment of Professional Knowledge: Adolesc…