Chapter 6: The American Revolution

Olive Branch Petition
peace petition sent to King George by colonial delegates after the battles of Lexington and Concord, declaring their loyalty to the king and asking him to repeal the Intolerable Acts
Green Mountain Boys
Vermont colonial militia led by Ethan Allen, which made a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga, giving Americans control of the key route into Canada
Continental Army
army established by the Second Continental Congress to fight the British
colonist who favored war against Britian
colonist who remained loyal to Britian
Battle of Bunker Hill
In 1775, first major battle of the Revolution
the shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
soldier who fights merely for pay, often for a foreign country
Battle of Lexington and Concord
What was the first battle of the American Revolution?
Battle of Bunker Hill
What was the first MAJOR battle of the American Revolution?
Ethan Allen
Who was the leader of the Green Mountain Boys?
it had useful supplies they could use for the war
Why did the Green Mountain Boys want to capture Fort Ticonderoga?
George Washington
Who was the first commander of the Continental Army?
Th British
Who won the Battle of Bunker Hill?
Because colonists from different colonies ddn't trust one another
Why was it hard to train the American army?
He set up the cannons that they won from Ticonderoga overlooking the harbor and the British knew they cold not hold Boston
How did Washington force the British to leave Boston?
Common Sense
published in1776, an essay by Thomas Paine that urged the colonies to declare indpendance
person who betrays his or her country
Decleration of Independance
a 1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independant nation
introduction to a decleration, constitution, or other official document
Natural Rights
rights that belong to all people from birth
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman
Name the 5 people that made up the commitee that would write the decleration of independance.
Thomas Jefferson
Who was the author of the Decleration of Independance?
July 4, 1776
When was the Decleration of Indpendance adopted?
John Hancock
Who was the president of the Continental Congress and the first to sign the Decleration?
Preamble, Natural Rights, British Wrongs, Indpendence
What are the four main parts of the decleration of independence?
they declared their independence
What actions did Congress take to make the final break with Britian?
Battle of Long Island
a 1776 battle in New York in which more than 1400 americans were killed, wounded, or captured
Battle of Trenton
a 1776 battle in New Jersey in which George Washington's troops captureda Hessian encampment in a surprise attack
Battle of Saratoga
in 1777, the first major American victory in the Revolution, which ended the British threat to New England
nation that works with another nation for a common purpose
troops on horseback
Valley Forge
Pennsylvania site of Washington's Continental Army encampment during the winter of 1777-1778
Nathan Hale
a young Connecticut officer who crossed British lines to get information about British troop movements
General John Burgoyne
This British General believed that if New England was cut off from the other colonies, the war would soom be over
The British
Who won he Battle for Breed's Hills
The British
Who won the Battle of Long Island?
The Patriots
Who won the Batlle of Trenton?
Battle of Saratoga
What was a major turning point in the war?
The British
Who won Philadelphia?
Valley Forge
Where did the Patriots stop for winter?
Benedict Arnold
Who was the leader of the strong American army that protected Albany from being captured?
Fort Ticonderoga
Instead of winning Albany, what did the British recaptue?
The Patriots
Who won the battle of Bennington?
It ended British threat to New England
Why was Saratoga a major turning point in the war for the Patriots?
What country did the Battle of Saratoga persuade to join the war?
France and spain
What two countries joined the war with the Americans?
Marquis de Lafayette
French noble who brought trained soldiers to help the Patriot cause
Marquis de Lafayette
Friedrich von Steuben
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Casimir Pulaski
Friedrich von Steuben
helped train Washington's army to march and drill
Marquis de Lafayette
Friedrich von Steuben
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Casimir Pulaski
Thaddeus Kosciusko
an engineer that helped build forts and other defenses
Marquis de Lafayette
Friedrich von Steuben
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Casimir Plaski
Casimir Pulaski
trained the
Marquis de Lafayette
Friedrich von Steuben
Thaddeus Kosciusko
Casimir Plaski
he led a surprise attack on british troops on Christmas night
How did Washington turn retreat into victory in New Jersey?
women planted and harvested crops, they made shoes and wove cloth for blankets and uniforms, they also toook over the family jobs
How did women's role change when men went to war?
she earned t nickname molly pitcher because she carried pitchers of water to soldiers
Who was Mary Ludwig Hays?
The Patriots
Who won the Battle of Vincennes?
he captured one of Britian's major warships on the sea and it became one of the greatest American sea victories
Why was John Paul Jones a hero to the Americans?
becausee Britian offered them freedom for their services
Why did some slaves escape to the British?
Because they believed all people, black or white, were all equal
Why did African American Patriots hope that the Revolution would end slavery?
It showed that Britian's new plan of capturing the south to win the war was not going to work
Why was the American Victory at Kings Mountain an important victory for Americans?
When did the south become the main battleground of the war?
many loyalists lived there and they hoped they would join them in the war
Why did the British want to move to the south?
because attacks by british troops and loyalist militia became more cruel
Why were more people beginning to side with the Patriots rather than with Britian?
he only engaged the British on ground that put the british at a disadvantage and the british soldiers soon became worn out from chasing Greene's army
How did General Green help "turn the tide" in the south?
The Patriots
Who won the Battle of Cowpens?
He put his soldiers in two lines. The first line fired at the british and then retreated. The British thought they were retreating so they kept moving forward but the second line fired and killed and wounded many of them
How did General Morgan help win the Battle of Cowpens?
they slept by day and traveled by night and used guerrilla attacks
What was Francis Marion's tactic?
he wanted to cut off American's supply routes to the south
Why did General Cornwallis want to capture Virginia?
Thomas Jefferson
Who was the governor of Virginia?
The Patriots
Who won the Battle of Yorktown?
October 19, 1781
When was the war finally over?
When did peace talks begin in Paris?
because the British were eager for it to be over
Why did the Americans get most of what they wanted during the peace talks?
April 15, 1783
date Treaty of Paris was ratified
knowledge of geography, foreign help, fighting skills improved, and Washington
Name 4 reasons the Americans won the war.
American and french troops laid seige to Cronwallis's army
Why was Cornwallis forced to surrender Yorktown?
Battle of Cowpens
a 1781 batttle in South Carolina, where Americans won an important victory over the British
soldier who uses hit-in-run tactics
military blockade or bombardment of an enemy town or position in order to force it to surrender
Battle of Yorktown
final battle in the American revolution; this 1781
American victory in Virginia forced the British to surrender
Treaty of Paris
a 1763 agreement between Briitan and France that ended the French and Indian War, and marked the end of French in North America; peace treaty between the United States and Britian, ratified in 1783, that recognized the United States as an independant nation
to approve
Battle of Yorktown
What was the battle that ended the war?