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60 terms

(chapters 23-26)

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waving the bloody shirt
The symbol of the Republican political tactic of attacking Democrats with
reminders ofthe Civil War
Credit Mobilier
Corrupt construction company whose bribes and payoffs to congressmen and
others created a major Grant administration scandal
Liberal Republican Party
Short-lived third party of 1872 that attempted to curb Grant administration
corruption, ·
silver
Precious metal that "soft-money" advocates demanded be coined again to
compensate for the "Crime of '73
Greenback Labor Party
"Soft-money" third party that polled over a million votes and elected fourteen
congressmen in l878 by advocating inflation
Gilded Age
Mark Twain's sarcastic name for the post—Civil War era, which emphasized its
_ atmosphere of greed and corruption
Grand Army of the Republic
Civil War Union veterans' organization that became a potent political bulwark
of the Republican party in the late nineteenth century
Stalwarts
Republican party faction led by Senator Roscoe Conkling that opposed all
attempts at civil-service reform
Half-Breeds
Republican party faction led by Senator James G. Blaine that paid lip service to
govemment reform while still battling for patronage and spoils
Compromise of 1877
The complex political agreement between Republicans and Democrats that -
resolved the bitterly disputed election of 1876
Chinese
Asian immigrant group that experienced discrimination on the West Coast
civil service
System of choosing federal employees on the basis of merit rather than patronage
introduced by the Pendleton Act of 1883
McKinley Tariff
Sky-high Republican tariff of 1890 that caused widespread anger among farmers
in the Midwest and the South
Populists (People's Party
insurgent political party that gained widespread support among farmers in the
1890s
grandfather clause
Notorious clause in southem voting laws that exempted from literacy tests and
poll taxes anyone whose ancestors had voted in 1860, thereby excluding blacks
Land Grants
Federally owned acreage granted to the railroad companies in order to
encourage the building of rail lines
Union Pacific RR
The original transcontinental railroad, commissioned by Congress, which built h
its rail line west from Omaha
Central Pacific RR
The Califomia-based railroad company, headed by Leland Stanford, that
employed Chinese laborers in building lines across the mountains
Great Northern RR
The northemmost ofthe transcontinental railroad lines, organized by
economically wise and public-spirited industrialist James J. Hill
stock watering
Dishonest device by which railroad promoters artificially inflated the price of
their stocks and bonds
Wabash case
Supreme Court case of 1886 that prevented states from regulating railroads or
other forms of interstate commerce
Interstate Commerce Commission
Federal regulatory agency often used by rail companies to stabilize the industry
and prevent ruinous competition
telephone
Late-nineteenth—century invention that revolutionized communication and created
a large new industry that relied heavily on female workers
Standard Oil
First of the great industrial trusts, organized through a principle of "horizontal
integration" that ruthlessly incorporated or destroyed competitors
U.S. Steel
The first billion-dollar American corporation, organized when J. P. Morgan bought out Andrew Camegie
New South
Term that identified southem promoters' belief in a technologically advanced
industrial South
Colored National Labor Union
Black labor organization that briefly flourished in the late l860s
Knights of Labor
Secret, ritualistic labor organization that enrolled many skilled and unskilled
workers but collapsed suddenly after the Haymarket Square bombing
craft unions
Skilled labor organizations, such as those of carpenters and printers, that were
most successful in conducting strikes and raising wages
American Federation of Labor
The conservative labor group that successfully organized a minority of American workers but left others out
dumbbell tenement
High-rise urban buildings that provided barrackslike housing for urban slum dwellers.
New Immigration
Term for the post-1880 newcomers who came to America primarily from southem and eastem Europe
birds of passage
Immigrants who came to America to earn money for a time and then retumed to
their native land
social gospel
The religious doctrines preached by those who believed the churches should directly address economic and social problems
Hull House
Settlement house in the Chicago slums that became a model for women's
involvement in urban social reform
social work
Profession established by Jane Addams and others that opened new
opportunities for women while engaging urban problems
American Protective Assoc.
Nativist organization that attacked "New lmmigrants" and Roman Catholicism
in the 1880s and 1890s
Roman Catholicism
The church that became the largest American religious group, mainly as a result
ofthe "New Immigration"
Tuskegee Institute
Black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide
training in agriculture and crafts
NAACP
Organization founded by W. E. B. Du Bois and others to advance black social
and economic equality
Progress and Poverty
Henry George's best-selling book that advocated social reform through the imposition of a "single tax" on land
Comstock Law
Federal law promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader and used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents
Women and Economics
Charlotte Perkins Gilman's book urging women to enter the work force and
advocating cooperative kitchens and child-care centers
NAWSA
Organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote
for women
WCTU
Women's organization founded by reformer Frances Willard and others to oppose alcohol consumption
Sioux
Major northem Plains Indian nation that fought and eventually lost a bitter war
against the U.S. Army, 1876—1877
Apaches
Southwestem Indian tribe led by Geronimo that carried out some of the last fighting against white conquest
reservations
Generally poor areas where vanquished Indians were eventually confined under federal control
Ghost Dance
Indian religious movement, originating out of the sacred Sun Dance that the federal govemment attempted to stamp out in I890
Dawes Severalty Act
Federal law that attempted to dissolve tribal landholding and establish Indians
as individual farmers
Comstock Lode
Huge silver and gold deposit that brought wealth and statehood to Nevada
long drive
General term for the herding of cattle from the grassy plains to the railroad
temiinals of Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming
Homestead Act
Federal law that offered generous land opportunities to poorer farmers but also
provided the unscrupulous with opportunities for hoaxes and fraud
barbed wire
Improved type of fencing that enabled farmers to enclose land on the treeless
plains
Oklahoma
Former "Indian Territory" where "sooners" tried to get the jump on "boomers"
when it was opened for settlement in 1889
Populists (people's party)
Third political party that emerged in the l890s to express rural grievances and
mount major attacks on the Democrats and Republicans
Coin's Financial School
Popular pamphlet written by William Hope Harvey that portrayed pro-silver
arguments triumphing over the traditional views of bankers and economics
professors
Pullman Strike
Bitter labor conflict in Chicago that brought federal intervention and the jailing of union leader Eugene V. Debs
Cross of Gold Speech
Spectacular convention speech by a young pro-silver advocate that brought him the Democratic presidential nomination in l896
"goldbugs"
Popular term for those who favored the "status quo" in metal money and opposed
the pro-silver Bryanites in I896