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Terms in this set (53)
A change in a species over time
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
organisms produce more offspring than can survive
Difference among members of a species
A characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
Frequency which something occurs
Principle that all living things were derived from common ancestors
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
Form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
the preserved trace, imprint, or remains of an organism
Eras defined by major geological events; Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
gradual changes of an organism over time
Distinctive fossils used to establish and compare the relative ages of rock layers and the fossils they contain
common ancestor for 2 different groups of organisms, or closely related. help trace descent of organisms
Structures that are similar in different species of common ancestry
similarities among unrelated species that result from convergent evolution
species split into two or more species, becoming increasingly different over time in response to different environments
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
The branch of biology that deals with the formation, early growth, and development of living organisms.
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
Examines the frequency, distribution, and inheritance of alleles within a population
Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.
evolution on a large scale, this leads to the formation of new species
All of the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population
Number of times that an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of alleles in that pool for the same gene
a measurement of the proportion of individuals in a population having a particular genotype (e.g. AA, Aa, or aa).
principle that allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause the frequencies to change
Genetic Equilibrium requires
1). No mutations. 2). Random mating. 3). No natural selection. 4). The population size must be extremely large, no genetic drift. 5). No gene flow. i.e. transfer of pollen.
Condition in which the frequency of alleles in a population remains the same over generations.
Movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
Changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance
Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that of the original population.
selection of a mate based on similarity of traits and sexual selection or when females choose their mate are both what kinds of mating
any event that changes genetic structure
A process typically caused by the genetic isolation from a main population resulting in a new genetically distinct species.
Separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
a form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated physically by geographical barriers such as rivers, mountains, or stretches of water
Species occur in the same area, but they occupy different habitats and rarely encounter each other.
Form of reproductive isolation in which two populations have differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevent them from interbreeding
species reproduce at different seasons or different times of day
polyploid organism has received a duplicate set of chromosomes by accident
mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants
incapable of reproducing
process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
An evolutionary pattern in which many species evolve from a single ancestral species
A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals.
A proposed explanation in evolutionary biology stating that new species arise from the result of slight modifications (mutations and resulting phenotypic changes) over many generations.
A proposed explanation in evolutionary biology stating that species are generally stable over long periods of time. Occasionally there are rapid changes that affect some species which can quickly result in a new species.
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