WST 338 Final
Terms in this set (41)
Which of the following would be a claim of gender essentialism:
There are certain, "natural," indeed universal, characteristics or properties that all men or women possess, which account for differences between them.
Is gender synonymous with sex?
All of the above.
People who "queer" gender and sexuality are liberated from heteronormativity and patriarchy.
Which of the following describes a "queer" understanding of gender?
All of the above.
someone whose sex "matches" their gender, which informs their sexuality
the assimilation of heteronormative scripts by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities
someone whose sex does not "match" their gender, which is delinked from sexuality
someone who desires people of the "opposite sex"
If advertisements for soaps, cosmetics, and undergarments had been part of popular culture representations of women since the nineteenth century, the biggest sales pitch to women came in World War II when the US Office of War Information began recruiting middle class white women with the image of Rosie The Riveter to work outside the home for the war effort.
Liberal Feminism is based on the belief that sharing power and reform of the current system cannot lead to liberation and instead advocates the creation of a new system or social order, one that isn't about power at all.
One of the signature activist events of the Women's Liberation Movement was the 1968 "No More Miss America" protest in which members of New York Radical Women tossed bras, girdles, false eyelashes, and high heels into "The Freedom Trash Can" to draw public attention to the racist, sexist, commercial, and militarist practices of the pageant.
Which of the following is an accurate description of the Hays Code, according to Feminism and Popular Culture by Andi Zeisler?
Racism was institutionalized in the Hollywood film industry by the Hays Code, which used existing anti-miscegenation laws to justify prohibiting actors of different races from performing romantic scenes together and to ban depictions of interracial romance on film.
Which of the following is not an accurate description of advertising and gender, as discussed in reading materials and/or Course Video Lectures?
According to David Gianatasio's article on "Hunkvertising," the objectification of men in contemporary advertising, such as the Kraft Zesty Italian salad dressing ads, reflects recent advances in gender equality in the twenty-first century.
With female lead characters, _____ of the 1970s are considered by some to feature the first female action heroes.
These melodramatic movies feature plots of sacrifice and suffering and an imperiled female figure who is victimized and punished: ______
The woman's picture/film
______ is considered by some to be the first instance in the US of a mass female gaze.
This melodramatic radio show that advertised to housewives and later became a daytime television genre is one of the earliest forms of popular culture designed specifically for female or feminized audiences ____
The Soap Opera
What is the main point of Mulvey's argument on the male gaze?
The gaze is gendered. Men are in a position of power as those who look without being looked at. By contrast, women are always posed as the objects of the gaze, and consequently reaffirm men as the assumed viewing subject.
What is an oppositional gaze?
An alternative reading of a film, not intended by producers, often subverting or disrupting dominant meanings.
bell hooks and Kobena Mercer each pose a challenge to Mulvey's framework. Together they argue that:
Relations of power are never complete or totalizing in the way that Mulvey describes them. The relationship between subject and object, in other words, is not static or fixed, but open to appropriation and subversion.
structure of viewing which turns subjects into objects
reading against the dominant narrative
powerful images which hold meaning for social relations
Alice Leppert suggests that images from Keeping Up With the Kardashians of Kourtney and Khloé sitting on the toilet and brandishing pee sticks from pregnancy tests create an intimate sisterly gaze, rather than an erotic male gaze.
In Love Between the Covers, author Beverly Jenkins recalls that she started writing novels because there were no historical romances that depicted the African American history of slavery.
As bell hooks theorizes, "the Oppositional Gaze" urges spectators to identify with characters and accept the looking relations within a text, even when those relations are coercive, hierarchical, and "opposite" of a spectator's own way of looking at the world.
Coined by Edward Said (1978), _______________ may be understood as a type of racism and names the dominant Western tradition that understands and represents the East as fundamentally different or "Other" to the West.
___________ is commonly used now to refer to individuals who experience their gender identity as a "match" between the sex (and gender) they were assigned at birth, their bodies and their feelings and behaviors.
According to Allison Arachea's short documentary, Constructed by the Gaze, Bridget Jones's Diary produces ________ by focusing primarily on Bridget's desires and concerns.
The Female Gaze
______________ is taking pleasure in the misfortune or suffering of others and is considered by critics to be part of the appeal for many spectators of Reality TV, which prominently features the humiliation of women
Which of the following is not an accurate description of the representation of transgender people in popular culture, as discussed in course readings, lectures, and assignments (Serano's "Skirt Chasers" and Halberstam's "The Transgender Look")?
As discussed in Unit 7, the recent trend in popular culture of depicting the transgender body as a visible symbol of the fantasy of flexibility or the human body's ability to "morph, shift, change, and become fluid" is a full and sincere appreciation of the gender ambiguity of transgender people, now providing complex representations of transgender people.
Which of the following is not an accurate description of postfeminism, according to assigned readings by Fudge, Tasker and Negra, and material presented in Course Lectures?
Postfeminist discourse is considered fundamentally different or unrelated to postracial discourse because it focuses primarily on white, middle-class women and ignores social inequalities such as racism, classism, and ableism.
Pinning is an online activity limited exclusively to the social networking and bookmarking site Pinterest, according to Wilson and Chivers Yochim
According to Course Lecture, the announcement in 2014 by Facebook and Apple that they would offer female employees a $20,000 incentive to freeze their eggs and delay childbirth caused a public debate.
In "Mothers, Fathers, and the Pregnancy App Experience" Barbara Ley writes that iTunes carries over 400 pregnancy apps, but most apps construct users and structure apps' technical, therapeutic, and design through default heternormativity.
Wilson and Chivers Yochim define the _______________ as an online, social media world that is never-ending and constantly changing, highly customized and produced by a community of everyday women and the corporate marketplace.
As described by Lucie Whitehouse, ___________ deals in the dark side of relationships, in the idea that you can never really know your husband or partner, or that home and relationship is threatened.
____________ avoids race talk and stereotypical assumptions about Black femininity in favor of a more neutrally raced, woman first, Blackness-as-flavor discourse.
Spirit of Colorblindness
______________ involves all of the social forces that incentivize or encourage and thus naturalize motherhood.
Which of the following is not an accurate description of Jillian Báez's analysis of content and reception in "Television for All Women? Watching Lifetime's Devious Maids"?
On the official Facebook page of Devious Maids, "anti-fans" posted detailed critiques of episodes they carefully analyzed for how racial and gender inequality go unaddressed in the show.
Which of the following is not included in Wilson and Chivers Yochim's discussion of pinning happiness and its relation to domestic labor?
Instead of helping women deal with the relentless demands of domestic labor in the family home, pinning is a form of "free labor" that only extends the unpaid women's work to provide caring or affective labor for others.