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Terms in this set (71)
the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism
Any living thing; made up of cells
a protective layer that covers the cell's surface and acts as a barrier
The region enclosed by the cell membrane that includes the fluid and all of the organelles of the cell
A small body in a cell's cytoplasm that is specialized to perform a specific function
The dna is contained in this membrane bound organelle; control center of the cell.
a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
an organism made up of cells that contain their DNA in a nucleus
A network of protein filaments that gives shape and support to cells
Cellular respiration occurs in this organelle
System of membranes found near the nucleus that assists in the production, processing, and transporting of proteins and in the production of lipids.
The membrane-bound organelle that packages and distributes materials, such as proteins.
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane.
A fluid-filled vesicle found in the cells of most animals, plants, and fungi; may contain enzymes, nutrients, water, or wastes.
Organelles where photosynthesis occurs
organelles that contain digestive enzymes, which breakdown worn out or damaged organelles, waste materials, and foreign invaders in the cell
the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment
process by which plants use sunlight to change carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen to make their own food
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomesduring which th
The movement of molecules from regions of high concentrations to regions of low concentrations
Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane
The movement of particles across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Movement of particles against a concentration gradient that requires the cell to use energy
The process by which a cell uses energy to surround a particle and enclose the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
Process by which particles are enclosed in a vesicle and released from a cell
Green pigment in plant cells that captures energy from sunlight for photosynthesis
Genetic material in cells found in the nucleus: deoxyribonucleic acid
The structures in the nucleus that are made of dna and protein
The life cycle of a cell including three stages; interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis.
The part of the cell cycle during which the cell is not dividing
Part of the cell cycle during which the nucleus divides into two nuclei
Division of parent cells cytoplasm into two daughter cells
This is where, during a cell's life cycle, dna along w proteins exist
Two identical structures in a duplicated chromosome
Holds together chromatids
The chromatin in the nucleus of a cell condenses and becomes visible under a microscope
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
The chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell
A new nuclear membrane forms around each group of chromosomes so there are two identical nuclei
Passing of genetic material from parents to offspring
A feature that has different forms in a population
A monk who preformed the first major experiments investigating heredity
Segments of dna found in chromosomes that give instructions for producing certain characteristics
different versions of a gene
When an organism has two dominant or two recessive alleles
When an organism has two different alleles
The combination of alleles that you inherited from your parents
Your observable traits
An allele that is fully expressed whenever present in an individual
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
When each allele in a heterozygous individual is influenced by the alleles so that the phenotype is a blend of the parents
Both alleles in a heterozygous individual contributes to the phenotype sp that both trait are present
A characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring.
Organisms obtain traits through learning or through interacting with the environment
A building block made up of a base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
Process where the cell is able to make a copy of dna molecules
Changes in the number, type, or order of bases on a piece of dna
ribonucleic acid, a molecule that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein production
Organelles made of rna and protein
a set of rules and symbols used to carry information
The twisted ladder shape of dna
Paired bases in a dna molecule
In a mutation when a base is left out
In a Mutation, when a base is added
Most common mutation when one base replaces another
physical or chemical agents that can damage dna
results from mutations that harm the normal function of a cell
The process when a cell needs a set of instructions for making a protein and it makes an rna copy of the necessary section of dna
Process of making proteins from rna
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