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Terms in this set (27)
What is the normal pacemaker of the heart?
The reflexes by which blood pressure is maintained are collectively known as the?
Includes atrial baroreceptors (high pressure receptors located in the carotid sinus, aortic arch and orgin of the right subclavian artery) and cardiopulmonary receptors (low pressure receptors)
leads to increased cardiac contractility, increased heart rate, venoconstriction and atrial vasoconstriction, ultimately leading to increased blood pressure via elevation of total peripheral resistance and cardiac output.
Leads to a decrease in heart rate and a small decrease in contractility resulting in a decrease in blood pressure
An increase in venous return stretches receptors in the wall of the right atrium which sends vagal afferent signals to the cardiovascular center within the medulla. The signals inhibit parasympathetic activity, resulting in an increased heart rate.
Chemosensitive cells located in the carotid bodies and the aortic body respond to changes in pH status and blood oxygen tension.
Forced expiration against a closed glottis produces increased intrathoracic pressure, increased central venous pressure and decreased venous return
The contraction of the right and left atria pushing blood into the ventricles
The period between atrial contractions when the atria are repolarizing
Contraction of the right and left ventricles pushing blood into the pulmonary arteries and aorta
The period between ventricular contractions when the ventricles are repolarizing
Refers to the tension in the ventricular wall at the end of diastole. It reflects the venous filling pressure that fills the left ventricle during diastole.
Refers to the forces that impede the flow of blood out of the heart, primarily the pressure in the peripheral vasculature, the compliance of the aorta and the mass and viscosity of blood.
Refers to the volume of blood ejected by each contraction of the left ventricle. Normal ranges for this are 60 to 80 mL depending on age, sex and activity
The amount of blood pumped from the left or right ventricle per minute. It is equal to the product of stroke volume and heart rate.
The amount of blood that returns to the right atrium each minute. This is similar in volume to the CO because the cardiovascular system is a closed loop, venous return must equal CO when averaged over time.
The liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells and platelets are suspended. It consists of water, electrolytes and proteins and accounts for more than half of the total blood volume. It is important in regulating blood pressure and temperature
Red blood cells
Make up appox. 40% of blood volume. Contain hemoglobin ( a protein that gives blood its red color and enables it to bind with oxygen) when RBC count is too low, the blood carries less oxygen, resulting in fatigue and weakness.
assist in blood clotting by clumping together at a bleeding site and forming a plug that helps to seal the blood vessel.
A low number of these increases the risk for bruising and abnormal bleeding.
A high number of these increases the risk for thrombosis which can cause stroke or heart attack.
White blood cells
Protect against infection
A low number increase the risk of infection
A high number can indicate an infection or leukemia
Help protect the body against infections by ingesting bacteria and debris
Consist of three main types
T lymphocytes and natural killer
A type of lymphocyte
Help protect against viral infections and can detect and destroy some cancer cells
A type of lymphocyte
Develop into cells that produce antibodies
ingest dead or damaged cells and help defend against infectious `organisms
Kill parasites, destroy cancer cells and are involved in allergic responses.
Participate in allergic responses.
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