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Terms in this set (54)
The change in velocity per unit time.
Also called the prime mover. The muscle most directly involved in bringing about a movement.
The body is erect, the arms are down at the sides, and the palms face forward.
angle of pennation
The angle between the muscle fibers and an imaginary line between the muscle's origin and insertion; 0° corresponds to no pennation.
The angle through which an object rotates, for which the SI unit is the radian.
The object's rotational speed, measured in radians per second.
A muscle that can slow down or stop the movement.
The mechanisms through which the musculoskeletal components interact to create movement.
A form of acceleration training in which the athlete performs the sport movement with less than normal and greater than normal resistance.
A slightly movable joint in which cartilage unites bony surfaces.
The load lifted divided by body weight to the two-thirds power.
concentric muscle action
A muscle action in which the muscle shortens because the contractile force is greater than the resistive force. The forces generated within the muscle and acting to shorten it are greater than the external forces acting at its tendons to stretch it.
Away from the center of the body.
Toward the posterior of the body.
eccentric muscle action
A muscle action in which the muscle lengthens because the contractile force is less than the resistive force. The forces generated within the muscle and acting to shorten it are less than the external forces acting at its tendons to stretch it.
A band of tough, inelastic fibrous tissue that connects a muscle with its bony attachment.
A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on opposite sides of the fulcrum.
A form of muscle attachment in which the epimysium is continuous with the perimysium of the muscle.
The resistive force encountered by an object moving through a fluid (liquid or gas), or by a fluid moving past or around an object or through an opening.
A form of fluid resistance that results from the way in which a fluid presses against the front or rear of an object passing through it.
The resistive force encountered when one attempts to move an object while it is pressed against another object.
The plane running parallel to the long axis of the body.
The pivot point of a lever.
A force opposite in direction to an accelerating force acting on a body; equal to the product of the accelerating force and the mass of the body.
The distal attachment of a muscle.
isometric muscle action
A muscle action in which the muscle length does not change, because the contractile force is equal to the resistive force. The forces generated within the muscle and acting to shorten it are equal to the external forces acting at its tendons to stretch it.
The naturally occurring, slightly rounded shape of the thoracic spine.
A rigid or semirigid body that, when subjected to a force whose line of action does not pass through its pivot point, exerts force on any object impeding its tendency to rotate.
The naturally occurring, slightly arched shape of the lumbar spine.
The ratio of the moment arm through which an applied force acts to that through which a resistive force acts. A mechanical advantage greater than 1.0 allows the applied (muscle) force to be less than the resistive force to produce an equal amount of torque. A mechanical advantage less than 1.0 is a disadvantage in the common sense of the word.
The perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the fulcrum.
Force generated by biochemical activity, or the stretching of noncontractile tissue, that tends to draw the opposite ends of a muscle toward each other.
The proximal attachment of a muscle.
A muscle with fibers that align obliquely with the tendon, creating a featherlike arrangement.
The time rate of doing work, calculated as Work / Time.
Toward the center of the body.
The rate at which motor units fire.
The motor units that are called upon (activated) to cause a muscle to contract.
Force generated by a source external to the body (e.g., gravity, inertia, friction) that acts contrary to muscle force.
Power = Work / Time.
Work = Torque • Angular displacement.
The plane that divides the body into front and back portions.
A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through a moment arm longer than that through which the resistive force acts. Due to its mechanical advantage, the required muscle force is smaller than the resistive force.
The ability to exert force.
The drag resulting from the friction of a liquid passing along the surface of an object.
A muscle that assists indirectly in a movement.
A flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.
A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through a moment arm shorter than that through which the resistive force acts. The mechanical advantage is thus less than 1.0, so the muscle force has to be greater than the resistive force to produce torque equal to that produced by the resistive force.
The degree to which a force tends to rotate an object about a specified fulcrum. It is defined quantitatively as the magnitude of a force times the length of its moment arm.
The plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
A movement in which the glottis is closed, thus keeping air from escaping the lungs, and the muscles of the abdomen and rib cage contract, creating rigid compartments of liquid in the lower torso and air in the upper torso.
Located toward the anterior of the body.
Another name for the spinal column, or backbone of the human body.
Work = Force • Displacement.
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