A legal distinction that the Supreme Court scrutinizes especially closely
Post-Civil War era when southern laws protected blacks' freedoms
Plessy v. Ferguson
A Supreme Court decision upholding state-enforced racial segregation
The standard under which the Court once upheld racial segregation
The term for laws forcing second-class status on blacks
A black interest group active primarily in the courts
Brown v. Board of Education
A Supreme Court decision declaring segregated schools inherently unequal
De Jure Segregation
Segregation created by law
De Facto Segregation
Segregation that exists but that was not created by law
Freedom of Choice
A school integration plan mandating no particular racial balance
Martin Luther King, Jr.
An early nonviolent leader in black civil rights
Equality of Opportunity
Offering the races an equal chance at desired things
Equality of Results
Distributing desired things equally to the races
The standard by which the Court judges gender-based classifications
Rostker vs. Goldberg
A ruling that held that Congress may draft men but not women
Roe vs. Wade
A ruling that declared all state laws prohibiting abortion unconstitutional
Legislation that barred the use of federal funds for nearly any abortion
A leading feminist organization
Nonviolent Civil Disobedience
A philosophy of peaceful violation of laws considered unjust and accepting punishment for the violation
The standard by which the Supreme Court judges classifications based on race: they must have a compelling public purpose
The use of race or sex to give preferential treatment to blacks or women
Helping disadvantaged people catch up, usually by giving them extra education, training, or services
Giving minorities preference in hiring, promotions, college admissions, and contracts
Designing remedies for overcoming racism and sexism by taking race and sex into account
A Supreme Court ruling stating that a college may not use an explicit numerical quota in admitting minorities but could "take race into account:"
Any persons who are not U.S. citizens
The rights of citizens to vote, receive equal treatment before the law, and share benefits of public facilities
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