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Chapter 11 Notes
Terms in this set (95)
What states are part of the Colorado River drainage basin?
Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, California
How many dams are used to store water and control the Colorado River?
The Colorado River is _______________________ in the U.S.
the most dammed river
What two large reservoirs store about 80% of the water in this river system?
-Lake Mead behind the Hoover Dam
-Lake Powell behind the Glen Canyon Dam
How many people in the U.S. receive water and electricity from this drainage basin?
30 million people / 10% of the U.S. population
What % of our crops and livestock are produced from Colorado River water?
What cities and areas of the western U.S. would support less humans and crops without the pumping of Colorado River water?
Las Vegas, NV; San Diego, CA; Las Angeles, CA; Phoenix, AZ; Tucson AZ
What is a water footprint?
the total amount of water we use daily directly & indirectly
What is virtual water?
(Indirect Water)Freshwater that is not directly consumed but is used to produce food and other products
What are groundwater and surface water withdrawals used for in the U.S.?
energy production, agriculture, & industry
What is a water hotspot?
an area where water is scarce & arguments or conflicts arise due to a growing population, agriculture, industry, & recreation
What is groundwater recharge?
when precipitation adds to an aquifer
What % of out bodies is made of water?
How many gallons of water are used to produce and 2 litre bottle of Coco-Cola?
132 gallons of water
Direct Water Uses
Water for cleaning--washing clothes/dishes
How many gallons of water does the average person directly use?
Indirect Water Uses
How many gallons of indirect water is used per day?
about 2,000 gallons a day
What percentage of Earth is covered by water?
How much of all the water on Earth is salt water?
How much fresh water is on Earth?
Where is 2% of the fresh water on Earth located?
Locked up in glaciers and ultra deep aquifers
How much fresh water is available for human use?
How does water get to earth?
Asteroids / some comets
the constant movement of water from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back to the Earth again
What is the Water Cycle powered by?
Energy from the sun
Steps in the Water Cycle
Where does precipitation go?
1) soaks into the soil (infiltration) -- as it infiltrates the water recharges the aquifer
2) runs off the land
moisture given off by plants
the layer of soil that is full of water
the top part of the ground water; is visible as lakes, rivers, streams, etc.
water can't pass through
a layer of rock that allows water to pass through
all the land around a body of water that drains into that body of water
________ gallons of water to make 1 burger
________ gallons of water to make 1 cotton T-shirt
________ gallons of water to make 1 pair of jeans
a source of pollution that can be easily identified, point to; Examples-factory pipes, sewage treatment discharge pipes, oil wells
pollution produced over a large area; Examples-Agriculture run off, runoff from golf courses/lawns, construction, logging sites, and landfills
How to control urban storm water runoff:
3) Sidewalk Planters
4) Roof top gardens
6) Porous Pavement
bricks placed with gaps so it can allow infiltration
depressions that capture water runoff
The process of water being added to groundwater is known as _______________________
a very toxic brew of precipitation and landfill fluids
What was found to be growing in male frog testes?
What chemical may be causing the deformities in frogs?
What is a hermaphrodite?
An organism with both male and female reproductive organs
Which is worse, large doses or small doses of the chemical? Why?
Smaller doses slowly disturb and affect the organisms less gradually so they don't notice right away- the body doesn't notice it to get away from it
What type of whale was studied in the St. Lawrence River? What disease do the whales have?
What is causing the disease?
Toxins, chemical combinations
Women who drink water with high levels of chlorine have high rates of _____________________
Why do men from Missouri have such unhealthy sperm?
Farm chemical runoff into the tap/drinking water
What toxic chemical was found to be in fish being caught by the father and his daughter?
What method was being researched that would eliminate the toxic from the lake water and consequently from the fish?
Forns --> Arsenic
Alpine Herbs --> Zinc
Mustard Plants --> Lead
Clover --> Motor Oils
How many miles of roots are there in 1 acre?
What species is attacking the Great Barrier Reef in Australia?
Crown of Thorns Starfish
What has allowed the outbreak of this harmful species?
-Nitrogen from runoff fertilizer
-Started an algae outbreak
-Algae is right size for young crown of thorns starfish to eat
-More starfish reach maturity + overgraze the reef
What is being done to reduce chemical runoff from the land?
They are planting more trees around the lake/stream to prevent to runoff from going into the water
form the base of the aquatic food chain
-There are two types
get food from the sun, called producers or autotrophs, algae
go get their food
large enough to see w/ the naked eye & don't have a backbone
Factors that affect Water Temperature
3) Streamside buffers
5) Natural Springs
_________ water has more oxygen
Factors that affect Oxygen Levels
1) Plant life in the water
4) Water Temperature
5) Amount of decomposing organic material
a measure of how acidic or basic water or soil is
<7 pH is _____________
7 pH level is _____________
>7 pH is _____________________
basic or alkaline
has more H+ ions
has more OH- ions
Causes of Changing Water pH
-man made acid rain from burning coal used in utility plants
-acid mine drainage
-water flowing over or through rocks with sulfur in them
from burning coal mixes w/ moisture in the air to form a strong man made acid rain
areas of unique soil, have water all or part of the year, & have life adapted to these wet conditions
3 types of Wetlands
area of moist spongy soil consisting of decomposing plant material
-has abundant peat & sphagnum mosses
-dominated by low shrubs, berry bushes, & water lilies
-has small open areas of water
holds lots of water and acts like a sponge
-Trees are the dominant plants
-Much open water
-found at the mouths of rivers or near the coasts
-tall grasses dominate such as cat tails
- May have narrow channels of open water
Benefits of Wetlands (B.O.W's)
1) Support a great variety of life
2) Help absorb runoff & then control flooding (sphagnum moss)
3) help filter out water; plant roots break down toxins; plants store toxins
4) by holding water, the water is allowed to infiltrate & recharge aquifers
5) provide recreational & tourism opportunities
6) maintain stream levels during dry periods
7) produce many different types of food
8) help reduce beach erosion as they absorb waves
9) coastal wetlands absorb storm surge from hurricanes
10) help recycle nutrients back into the soil (slow water allows sediments to fall to the bottom)
11) provide habitat for many different species
water pushed up & over the coast form high winds during hurricanes
Threats to Wetlands
1) Shoreline development
2) Urban development
4) Climate change-as the world warms & coastal levels rise, they'd be buried under salt water
5) Leachate from old unsanitary landfills
6) Chemical runoff from farms, insecticides, herbicides, & fertilizers
7) Toxic runoff from industry- mining, drilling, industrial manure lagoons
the volume of domestic sewage and contaminated rainwater after storms that often overwhelm our treatment plants
Gas Monitoring Probe
methane gas is produced by decomposition, it is then taken out to be burned as energy
In a landfill liner system, the HDPE liner is _______________
Rust; Orange color
Iron Oxide is NOT _______________
acid mine drainage
Acid Mine Drainage
precipitation infiltrating into the mine mixing w/ sulfur from the coal mine creating sulfuric acid
areas of vegetation along sides of river or along the shores of bodies of water
Benefits of Buffers
-help absorb nutrients (nitrogen & phosphorus) before they enter the water
-provide shade=cooler water-->has more oxygen
-reduce streambank erosion-roots hold soil
-help reduce runoff which could lead to flooding & erosion
-help absorb toxins before they get to stream
-provide areas of relaxation & recreation
Pennsylvania Releaf Program (for buffers)
-Conserve existing streamside buffers
-Repair damaged or missing buffers
-Educate the public about the importance of streamside buffers
Pennsylvania Drought Program
-Drought watch-reduce water use by 5%
-Drought warning-reduce water use by 10-15%
-Drought emergency-reduce water use by more than 15%
A plume forms when _____________________
rain pushes chemicals from a landfill into the groundwater
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 4 & 5 Notes
Chapter 10 Notes
Kopich Test 1 Chapter 2
Chapter 13 & 16 Notes
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