Praxis 5511 - Science (2019)
Terms in this set (223)
Amount of saltwater on earth, 71% of Earth's surface is Ocean (percentage).
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Always as much energy after something happens as there was before it happened.
2nd law of Thermodynamics
Everything directs itself toward the lowest energy state with the most equal distribution of resources.
Scientist believe Earth's origin year was ____ years ago.
___ _____ is the result of a chemical reaction between two or more elements.
Newton's second law equation.
Change in velocity / is caused by
An inherited manner of an organism that improves it chance of survival.
Friction between air and a solid object.
Group 1 elements, which are very reactive metals.
Unit of quantity of electron flow.
Amount of electric that flows thru a conductor.
Loudness or volume, greater force, louder sound.
Animal Cell Membrane
Form/structure permits inward passage and passage of waste.
Cell creates 2 identical pairs of chromosomes, splits, and forms nuclei around chromosomes. Divides thru MITOSIS.
Thousands of small rocky bodies that appear between Mars and Jupiter.
Number of protons + neutrons of an element's atoms.
Allows students to learn science as it is practiced.
First day of fall, day/night are equal length.
Discovered lightning and static electricity in 1750.
The environment in which a group of organisms exist as a community that includes such necessitates as air, water, and land.
_____ is the foundational unit that provides the structure and function of life. All living things are made of cells.
66 million years ago - present time. Hominids, modern man, primates, horses, mastodons, whales, alligators, saber-toothed tigers.
Electric change can neither be created nor destroyed but is always conserved.
Set of molecules that consist of 2+ atoms of DIFERENT elements that are linked, but can be separated. Ex: H2O, NaCl, etc....
______ is the branch of natural sciences that examines the properties, compositions, stages, structure, and relations (atomic and molecular) of matter and how matter can change.
Plastids that contain chlorophyll for plant to make food.
______ are made up of genes that are comprised of strands of DNA. Humans have 23 pairs of ____________.
Path electrons flow thru called electric current.
Blood vessels, arteries, heart moves blood and lymphatic fluid to all parts of an organism.
Utilize commonalities of objects to logically group items. Ex: Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.
Water Cycle ____: When water falls back to Earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes, or rivers. It also may end up on land and the process starts all over again.
A celestial body that revolves around the sun and possess a nucleus and a tail that always points away from the sun due to the solar wind.
Darwin's Laws: Every group of living organisms on Earth descended from a common ancestor.
Share findings, outcomes, and results with others.
Result of a chemical reaction between 2 elements.
Water Cycle _____: When the water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds.
The transfer of heat energy by moving particles that make other particles move. The heat moves from warmer areas to cooler areas along materials that absorb or conduct the heat, such as metal.
The fundamental laws of all science.
Conservation of Energy
Energy remains constant in a system and cannot be recreated, but it can change forms.
Conservation of Mass / Matter
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be rearranged. The sum of the matter and the energy in the universe remains the same.
Conservation of Momentum
Total momentum remains the same unless acted upon by an outside force.
Constant / Changing
Horizontal velocity is _____. Vertical velocity is ____ due to gravitational acceleration.
A type of boundary system astronomers use for organizing the night sky according to 88 constellational regions.
Identify the need for a model and create an accurate and appropriate sample.
Transfer of heat thru collision of molecules that only occurs only in lipids and gases as the circulate.
The transfer of heat through the collision of molecules that occurs only in liquids and gases as they circulate.
Plate boundary movements: the Collison or crashing together of 2 or more plates resulting in the rise of mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
5-30 miles thick, not fixed, mosaic of moving plates, out shell.
All materials outside of nucleus, gel filling.
Invented hygrometer (measures moisture in air) and invented anemometer (wind speed).
Apply mathematical equations and principles to issue.
Mass/unit of volume.
The movement of particles from a high concentration to an area of low concentration. Occurs when the concentrations in all areas is the same and is called a state of equilibrium.
Breaking down of food.
Inertia is _____ related to mass.
When quantities change in the same direction.
Plate boundary movements: the separating or pulling apart of 2 or more plates, resulting in rifts and the formation of new crust (most commonly called sea-floor spreading).
_____ or deoxyribonucleic acid carries the code of protein production, or instructions, for growth, reproduction, and other life activities.
______ is the study of the interaction of organisms within their environment and with one another.
The community of living things existing within a non-living environment, promoting energy flow, incorporating the Earth's processes and recycling of minerals.
Located in the shells that orbit an atom's nucleus, it has a negative charge (-).
It is a simple form of matter and everything in the universe is made of some type of _____.
It cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change.
Indefinite of very long period of time.
Transport canals that travel from nucleus to cytoplasm, may rough with ribosomes or smooth without.
Moves the weathered materials across the Earth's surface through the rivers and by the wind.
Water Cycle ______: Occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the Earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet, or snow.
Darwin's Laws: The world is a constant state of change.
Kidneys spleen liver colon, removing waste products.
Use of prior knowledge and a hypothesis to attempt different solutions.
When an entire species "dies out" or disappears due to extreme changes in the environment or the inability to adapt to change quickly.
Faraday's Law of Induction
Electromagnetic Laws: Explains the way that voltage can be generated as any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause voltage to be produced.
Nuclei of atoms are disintegrated.
Discovered origins of blood in 1917.
______ are reproductive organs of plants.
Food Chain Cycle
Field Ecosystem: plant > grasshopper > field mouse > snake > hawk
______ is the pressure or change applied to object and includes gravity, electricity, and magnets. ____ is what can cause the acceleration of an object with mass. It can be measured in N or pounds. F=(mass)acceleration.
Formulation of hypothesis
Develop as assumption based on variables.
Law of Heat Conduction: The transfer of heat moves through matter from higher temperatures to lower temperatures in order to equalize differences.
free fall / gravity
The vertical motion of a projectile is nothing more than _____ with a constant downward acceleration due to _____.
A diagram showing only the forces acting on an object.
The force between two objects that comes into contact with one another and cannot be eliminated.
The rubbing of one object against another object that produces a form of heat energy.
2+ nuclei smashed together to form different kind of nucleus.
Invented thermoscope aka thermometer, discovered all objects fall at same rate, studied orbits of planets and discovered Jupiter's moons.
States of Matter: No shape, color, or volume. Can expand infinitely to match the shape that holds it. Ex: air, hydrogen, helium.
General Law of Gravitation
Describes the gravitational attraction between 2 masses: gravitational force between two objects is equal to the gravitational constant times the product of the two masses divided by the distance between them squared.
Einstein's Laws: Gravitational attraction between masses is the result of the nearby masses. Gravity has waves.
The process of sprouting a plant from a seed.
Packages proteins and transports them thru cell and packages waste to be removed from cell.
Darwin's Laws: Changes occur through the slow gradual change of population, not through fast sudden production of new beings.
The acceleration of object towards the center of the Earth.
Group 7 elements, highly reactive nonmetals.
Forms when magma cools. Ex: granite, quartz, pumice.
Simple Machine: Magnifies force and distance increases; used to help move things up and down reduces the force needed.
Resistance of an object to a change in its motion.
inertia / gravity
A projectile, once projected, continues in motion by its own _____ and is influenced only by the downward force of ____.
The use of prior knowledge and experience to state the reasons for an occurrence and provide a supporting statement.
800 miles to the center of the Earth, a solid, possibly made of iron metal, center of Earth.
An inherited gene that sets natural behavior patterns of a species and remains the same even if the situation changes.
Any materials that does not let electrics current to flow thru it, like rubber or plastic.
Interpretation of Data
The use of collected information and construction charts, graphs, or narration to deliver reasonable results.
When quantities change in opposite directions.
(moving) This is the energy that does the work OS is the energy that is occurring. Ex: when a jack-in-the-box is opened the coiled spring is freed and the jack leaps out from the force of the spring.
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Hierarchy: King Philip Came Over For Great Spaghetti
Simple Machine: magnifies forcer by increasing distance.
Law of Acceleration
Newton's 2nd Law: An object will move in the direction of the force applied to it. The most important law in Physics.
Law of Inertia
Newton's 1st Law: An object will remain at rest or in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
Law of Reciprocal Actions
Newton's 3rd Law: For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction.
Law of Superposition
Rocks on top are newer than rocks on bottom.
______ is the distance between two points and is measured by inches, feet, miles, centimeters, meters, kilometers, and light years.
Simple Machine: Magnifies force, increased speed or changes directions and is used to lift things.
States of Matter: Fixed volume, takes on the shape of the container. Ex: milk, water, apple juice.
______ occurs when the moon is blocked by the Earth's shadow in the following pattern: Sun-Earth-Moon.
1,800 miles thick, plasticity (ability of solid to flow) has circulating currents, which cause the plates to move, second layer moving inward.
The amount of matter in an object, a measure of inertia.
_____ is the amount of matter and on Earth it is measured by weight (pound, gram, kilogram).
Einstein's Laws: When a body has a mass, it has a certain energy even if it is not moving. Based on this concept, he designed a formula to demonstrate the relationship between energy and matter, and it was discovered that particles of matter can go fast enough to increase in mass.
It cannot be created or destroyed. It can be converted into another form without losing its mass. Takes up space, and when increased it has an increased weight.
The process that produces gametes.
The heat of fusion. When a solid reaches a point where its particles move so rapidly that they escape their boundaries, they begin to move more freely becoming a liquid.
245-144 million years ago. Mammals, birds, and dinosaurs.
Elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current.
Elements that have physical and chemical properties of metals and nonmetals; silicon is an example.
Forms through the transformation of igneous, sedimentary rocks through heat and pressure. The rock does not melt but is changed underground by immense heat and pressure. Ex: marble - was limestone and slate - was mica.
A small body of matter that travels through space and becomes a meteorite when it lands on Earth.
A stony or metallic particle in space that revolves around the sun.
Milky Way Galaxy
Where Earth is located, includes everything that is seen in the sky with the naked eye.
Powerhouse of the cell, releases energy to cell thru chemical rxns.
_____ is the combination of two or more elements without a chemical reaction.
Multiplication of Species
Darwin's Laws: Species split into or produce other species depending on geographical locations.
An accidental or irregular change that occurs in the genes of offspring that may be due to an influence of the environment, chemicals or toxins.
Natural Resource A material found on the planet that occurs in a natural state, but has economic value, such as timber, water, mineral deposits, oil, coal, and land.
Darwin's Laws: Individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Net Force Causes
Acceleration is caused by.
Located in the nucleus, it has no charge.
Newton's Second Law
Acceleration is proportional to net force and inversely proportional to mass.
Newton's Third Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Determined Earth was not the center of the universe and planets orbit the sun. It explained seasons and Earth's rotation on its axis.
Group 8 elements, which are extremely unreactive, they are inert.
Normal Force (Fnorm)
The force that acts against the surface that an object is on (does NOT always counteract weight).
______ is the center of an atom, it contains neutrons and protons and has a positive charge (+).
Use of the five senses to focus on the world and watch the movement within it.
Electromagnetic Laws: Measures the voltage and current in electrical circuits, stating that the current going through a conductor is equal to the voltage divide by the resistor.
Group of systems.
Group of tissues.
The diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane.
1,300 miles thick, liquid, the Earth's magnetic field starts here, 3rd layer moving inward.
Makes ovules - pollen to ovules = fertilized seeds.
570-286 million years ago Trilobites, reptiles, amphibians, sharks, fish, shelled, animals, insects.
How high or low the sound is: the frequency of the sound.
Plant Cell Wall
Made of cellulose to provide structure.
Provide color, storage, chemical factories.
(not moving) This is the energy that could possibly do the work if it was released or a force was imposed on the object. Ex: A jack-in-the-box has a coiled spring which is compressed inside the box. This spring is waiting to explode and therefore has potential energy.
Defined as the rate of measure of the time work can be done.
The use of prior knowledge and experience to determine occurrence.
Located in the nucleus, it has a positive charge (+).
Simple Machine: Reduces force needed to move an object, but increases the distance: moves things up and down and changes the direction of force.
The transfer of heat by means of waves in an empty space as in the form of infrared radiation, occurring only in gases.
(at the Earth's core) The activity within the Earth creates the structures on Earth. The _______ _______ is responsible for the movement of plates, causing most volcanoes, earthquakes, and so on. This generates mountains, valleys, ocean basins, and other land forms.
Caused by light bounding off a surface.
Change in direction or bending of light rays as they pass thru materials.
The system of living organisms that ensures the survival of the species.
A cell creates two identical pairs of chromosomes, splits, and forms nuclei around the chromosomes. The cells divide by a process called mitosis. New cells are created using only one "parent" such as in algae, bacteria, sponges, mold, and fungi.
Quality the original sound makes; a distinctive timbre.
A statement of fact, proven time and time again.
A statement based on observations, tested and then proven.
Forms when layers of sediments are compressed. Rocks are often layered and cemented with minerals. Ex: sandstone, chalk, coal, limestone, or shale.
A tool that with only a few or no moving parts, that does work.
Occurs when the moon casts a shadow upon the Earth in the following pattern: Sun-Moon-Earth.
(energy from the sun) The sun hits the surface of Earth at varying angles, which causes major climates to be present in certain areas, as well as influencing the type of life forms that exist in those various regions. Also affects the Earth's weather, which affects the vegetation and conditions like erosion.
Consists of the sun and all the bodies that revolve around the sun. Set of 8 or 9 planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (Pluto is not considered a planet currently).
States of Matter: Fixed shape and volume, holds shape. Ex: wood, ice, rock.
"1. More rapid vibration, higher the pitch.
2. Sound travels thru different states of matter at different speeds.
3. Objects produce sound by causing a series of compression and waves of molecules.
The longitudinal movements in which the compressions and rare fractions travel spherically outward from the source are mad of matter and have wavelengths.
How far something travels in a specified time is measured by miles and hours or meters per second.
Male reproductive organ makes pollen.
Transports pollen to ovary.
First day of summer - the longest day.
Also known as Pangaea - occurred about 250 million years ago. Scientists believe this was the beginning of much animal and plant life.
Survival of the fittest
Basic principle of ecological evolution. The organism is best adapted to an environment will generally produce the most offspring and the offspring that possess the more favorable traits will survive and reproduce.
The species that live together will evolve to benefit one another.
The speed at which the force of friction balances weight.
Terminal speed, along with direction of motion.
The Law of Simple Machines
The force put into the machine times the distance the effect moves equals the output force from the machine times the distance the resistance moves.
Measured by seconds, minutes, hours, years, days, centuries.
Plate boundary movements: the rubbing together of 2 or more plates resulting in earthquakes and the recycling of the Earth's crust.
Trigonometric Method of Vector Resolution
Involves using trigonometric functions to determine the components of the vector, converting to a right triangle, figure out what theta is, than express the angle counterclockwise due east.
Layers of the atmosphere - troposhere, stratosphere, ozosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, exosphere.
Store food, water, and minerals.
Determine factors and stabilize all but one.
First day of spring, day/night are equal.
Unit of measure of force for electron flow.
Force that causes electrons to flow; amount of force in current.
Space occupied by mass.
Measurement unit of electric power.
The distance between 2 successful compressions or 2 successive rare fractions.
The process of changing natural structures, such as rocks through the effects of wind, water, and ice.
Simple Machine: Magnifies force; used to push things apart or secure things together.
A measure of the force of gravity on an object.
Wheel and Axel
Simple Machine: Increases speed: facilitates motion, and movements of objects.
First day of winter - shortest day.
Process of an object being moved over a distance in response to some force being applied.
For the vertical distance (y) of horizontally launched projectile you use equation.
Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom.