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DSST Ethics in America
Terms in this set (70)
In Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians believe that they have the right to dominate the Melians
because they, the Athenians, have the power to do so.
Excellence in attaining and practcing the virtues is described by which of the following Greek terms
Eudaimonia requires which of the following
Living well and doing well
The relation of Plato's The Allegory of the Cave to his ethical sys tem is which of the following
The notion of perfect Forms, of which the Good is one
Which of the following is a major difference between Plato's ethics and Aristole's?
Only Plato argues for the dominace of reason as a necessary prerequisite for ethical behavior
Plato insisted on an absolute moral goal (the Good), whereas Artistole insisted that moral rules or beliefs that hold most of the time are often the best that can be achieved
Which philosopher is most closely assoicaited with the "Doctirine of the Mean:?
Which of the following is a major similartity between Plato and Aristole?
Both argued that ethical behavior depends on maximinzing irrationallity
Neither beleived that women were equal to men in moral abilities
The Stoics beleived that happiness consisted of which of the follwing?
According to the Old Testament, the Israelites were bond to God by which of the following
According to the Old Testament, the Israelites were to God as a child is to a
According to the Book of Job, if God is all powerful, all knowing and wholly good, then evil must come from
a mistaken, short-term impression of humans who do not know (and can not know) all of God's plan
Jesus is most similar to which of the following Old Testament groups
Jesus' Golden Rule, do unto others as you would have them do unto you, was anticpated by which of the following philosophers?
The Ten Commandments are which of the following?
One major difference between the Gof of the Old testament and Jesus in the New Testament is that the Old Testament God
is concerned primarily with retributive hustice, whereas Jesus is primarly concerned with distributive justice
Christian ethics then to empahasize which of the following
Mercy, Grace, Forgiveness
Paul argues which of the following
achiving enternal life and the importance of the Holy Spirit
Pauls command not to divorce devires from what authroity
Natural law is incompatible with which of the following claims?
the denial of a shared basic human nature and the lack of natural rights
Hobbes "Leviathan" is a metaphor for which of the following?
A sysytem conception of natural law originated with which of the following ethical philosophers/
Aquinas' "princple of double effect" states which of the following
under some condintions, an act that causes harm many be perimssible if a good end is brought about. One act may have two effects, one intended and one unintended
Epictetus stated that
our ability to achieve happiness is whilly under our own power and only the pursuit of viture is morally good
Kant's ethical system is
"Taking another person's life is unethical" This statement is an example of which of the following
a categorical imperative
"If I want to be treated well, then I will have to treat others well" This statement is an example of which of the following
a hypothetical imperative
Kant's notion that one should act as thought one were recommending ones's act as an unbreakable, eternal and universal law to fully rational free agents is called the
kingdom of ends
According to Ralws, reflective equilibrium is
the results of a process by which individuals collectively agree upon a cohert view of what is just
The felicific calculus assumes that
all pleasures are of equal value
there is enough time to use the calculus in real-life situations
Bentham, unlike Mill, argued
that all pleasures were equivalent in value
According to the "harm principle"
liberty extends up to the point of inflicting harm on another
Kant would object to Mill's ethics in which of the following ways?
it takes the consequences of action into account in moral judgement
Which of the followng pairings of philospher and ethical theory or nation is accurate?
rule utilitarianism>Mill; act utilitarianism>Bentham
Wollstonecraft argued that
social mores, especially education, made most women inferior to men as moral actors
Which of the following is not distinctive feature of an apporoach to feminist ethics?
Animals are often excluded from etical considerations on the grounds that they lack which of the following characteristics?
The dictume "do no harm" is a
positive act of omission
The medical code of ethics is closest to which of the following philosopher's theories?
Representive governments rely on the free and unrestricted flow of information. Which os the following social activites relies on the free and unrestricted flow of information in order to properly operate?
The debate over the death penalty is primarily a matter of which of the following?
Mental health professionals, clergy, journalists, physiians and lawyers al have confidential relationships with various people they work with or for. This shows our society's acknowledgement of the importance of which of the following?
Anti-abortionist and environmentaltis share which of the following ethical commitments?
That the unborn generations have rights
A scientist who has faked results has interfered with which of the following?
The allocation of public funds in the annual ferderal budget is a clear statement of the executive and legislative branch's collective view on which of the following?
the fair or equitable division of goods in a community.
Public funding of elections has been proposed in order to eliminate which of the following problems that lawmakers and executive branch officials currently face?
Conflicts of interest
Some worry about increasing amount of military outsourcing because of which of the following?
A solider asks his unit clergyman to pray that he will kill many of the enemy. The clergyman refuses. On which of the following grounds did the clergyman most likely refuse?
Professional code of ethics
A group of citizens form a knitting circle. This is an example of
Not doing harm
A group of citizens pledges to abstain from littering and hold without fail to this pledge. This is an example of
A group of citizens volunteers time to rebuild a home destroyed in a hurricane. This is an example of
The word arete translates to
The ethics of care is the approach to ethics is based on relationships
this is a a feminist theory
must be consistently willed as a universal law
Divine Permission Theory (DPT
states that whatever God permits is right.
Aristotle disapproved of suicide to escape poverty, love or anything painful. He said that these acts were not courageous, but implied that suicide with other more virtuous motives might be.
David Hume, Humean
believed that justice stems from just laws. Therefore, to deliberately break the law, even by going abroad to do so, would result in injustice.
It is the value of the consequences of the particular act that counts when determining whether the act is right.
It is the view of anthropologists and others that we cannot criticize cultures that we do not understand
Moral isolationism leaves no room for moral reasoning or argument. It prevents people from giving out opinions or comments."
according to Midgley
perfect procedural justice.(Rawls)
it means that a fair outcome is stated in advance
refers to the distribution of burdens and benefits in society
Hobbes believed that
that obligations to tell the truth were voluntarily assumed and so need not be always followed.
that suicides reflected 'unmanly cowardice' and would consider lying to be a wrongful act unless it was done for the good of society.
utility is measure by their personal preferences.
promotes actions that fulfill the interests (preferences) of those beings involved
is a major concept in the field of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy, where it is often considered to be the root cause of problems created by human interaction with the environment, however; it is profoundly embedded in our culture and conscious acts
when faced with a choice, we must first consider the likely consequences of potential actions and, from that, choose to do what we believe will generate the most pleasure
states that the morally right action is the one that is in accordance with a moral rule whose general observance would create the most happiness.
does not mean that morality is set in stone. Beliefs can change over time and just because it is acceptable at one point in time does not make it morally right.
believed a person should only accept moral rules and duties if it benefited him/her.
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