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BIO Ch. 8 Immune System
Terms in this set (76)
The immune system can be divided into innate and ? immunity?
Which type of immunity is composed of defenses that are always active, but that cannot target a specific invader and cannot maintain immunologic memory?
innate immunity is also known as ? immunity
? immunity is composed of defenses that take time to activate, but that target a specific invader and can maintain immunologic memory
specific immunity is also known as ?
The ? is the site of T-cell maturation
Immune cells are made in the?
Two places where immune responses can be mounted and where B-cells are activated include the spleen and?
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) includes the tonsils and ?
Skin and mucus are both a part of the ? immune system
The skin is a part of the innate immune system and acts as a physical barrier and secretes antimicrobial compounds like ?
Tears and saliva contain ?, an antibacterial compound
The ? system can punch holes in the cell walls of bacteria, making them osmotically unstable
Stomach acid is an example of which immune system
? are given off by virally infected cells and help prevent viral replication and dispersion to nearby cells
Macrophages and major histocompatibility complex molecules are members of the ? immune system
? ingest pathogens and present them on major histocompatability complex (MHC) molecules
? are chemical substances released by macrophages that stimulate inflammation and recruit additional immune cells to the area
Which type of MHC class is present in all nucleated cells?
Which MHC class displays endogenous antigens (proteins from within the cell) to cytotoxic T cells?
Cytotoxic T cells are also known as
Which MHC class is present in all antigen-presenting cells?
macrophages, dendritic cells, some B cells and certain activated epithelial cells are all ?
professional antigen-presenting cells
Exogenous antigens (proteins from outside the cell) are displayed by ?
MHC 2 molecules
MHC2 cells display exogenous antigens to ?
helper T cells are also known as ?
Which cells are antigen-presenting and located in the skin?
What type of cells attack cells not presenting MHC molecules, including virally infected cells and cancer cells?
Natural killer cells
Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are all known as?
Which type of granulocyte ingests bacteria, particularly opsonized bacteria (those marked with antibodies)?
Neutrophils follow bacteria using ?
? are used in allergic reactions and invasive parasitic infections
Which type of granulocyte releases histamine, causing an inflammatory response?
Mast cells are related cells found in the ?
Which type of granulocytes (2) are involved in allergic reactions?
basophils and eosinophils
Plasma cells are located in ?
`? immunity is centered on antibody production by plasma cells
? contain two heavy chains and two light chains
Antibodies target a particular ?
Antibodies have a constant region and a ? region
Where on an antibody is the antigen-binding region located?
tip of the variable region
When activated, the antigen-binding region undergoes ? to improve the specificity of the antibody produced
IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA are all ?
Cells may be given signals to switch ? of antibody
isotypes (IgM, IgD, IgE, or IgA)
Circulating antibodies can mark pathogens for destruction using a process called ?
Antibodies can cause agglutination causing pathogens to be clumped into insoluble complexes that are ingested by ?
Cell-surface antibodies can activate immune cells or mediate ?
What type of adaptive immunity cells lie in wait for a second exposure to a pathogen and can then mount a more rapid and vigorous immune response (secondary response)
The adaptive immune system is also known as ? immunity
Cell-mediated (cytotoxic) immunity is centered on the functions of which type of cells?
T-cells undergo maturation in the ?
T-cells undergo maturation in the thymus through positive selection which means?
Only selecting for T-cells that can react to antigen presented on MHC
Causing apoptosis in self-reactive T-cells is also known as ?
Which peptide hormone promotes T-cell development?
Th and CD4+ cells are also known as ?
Helper T-cells respond to antigen on MHC-II and coordinate the rest of the immune system, secreting ? to activate various arms of the immune defense?
Th1 cells secrete interferon gamma, which activates ?
Th2 cells activate ?
Cytotoxic T-cells (Tc, CTL, or CD8+) respond to antigen on MHC-1 and kill?
virally infected cells
Treg are also known as ? T cells that tone down the immune response after an infection and promote self-tolerance
Suppressor (regulatory) T cells
Memory T-cells serve a similar function to ?
When a self-antigen is recognized as foreign, and the immune system attacks normal cells, this is known as an?
Immunization is a method of inducing ? immunity
The activation of B-cells that produce antibodies to an antigen is a method of inducing active immunity known as ?
? immunity is the transfer of antibodies to an individual
? is a circulatory system that consists of one-way vessels with intermittent lymph nodes
The lymphatic system connects to the cardiovascular system via the ?
The ? system equalizes fluid distribution, transports fats and fat-soluble compounds
The lymphatic system transports fats and fat-soluble compounds in ?
The ? system provides sites for mounting of immune responses
When the adaptive immune system encounters an antigen, and only the cells w/ receptors specific to that antigen are activated. This is known as?
All immune cells are derived from The ?
hematopoetic stem cell
T, B and NK cells are all derived from?
lymphoid stem cell
Platelets, RBCs, granulocytes and macrophages are all derived from?
myeloid stem cell
Mast cells are derived from ?
macrophages are derived from monocytes which are further derived from?
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