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AP US History - 13 Colonies

A review of info from the first half of AP US History (Book: The American Pageant)
"Encomienda" System
The government gave Indian laborers to colonists (basically used as slaves), in exchange for Christianizing the Indians
(Specifically the coast) of the location was the site of the first attempted (and failed) at English colonization
Roanoke, Virginia
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them. The first mildly successful English colony (minus disappearance)
a former village on the James River in Virginia north of Norfolk
Charter of the Virginia Company of London
Document giving male settlers the same rights as men in England
Virginia Company
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world, under James I.
Big Three Reasons for Exploration
Gold, God, and Glory
Problems in Jamestown
Malnutrition & starvation, (aided by a distaste for working to get food [hunting, fishing]), shipwreck, harsh conditions (Jamestown was on a swamp), disease, overall laziness
Captain John Smith
Took over Jamestown in 1608, helped to save the colony and reinvigorate the colonists
"He who shall not work shall not eat!"
Lord de La Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610 with aid for the colony, but immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
Colony of Virginia (1624)
Entire economy depended solely on tobacco (which ruined soil). Virginia House of Burgesses (1619): First example of representative democracy in colonies; controlled finances, militia, etc. Use Headright System, which gave each Virginian 50 acres of land for each person whose passage to America they paid for. Hating tobacco and distrusting the House of Burgesses, King James I later revoked the Virginia Company Charter, making Virginia a royal colony under his jurisdiction.
Powhatan Tribe
Indian tribe that fought with the Jamestown colonists (Lord de la Warr) over land disputes. Later separated legally. Considered extinct by 1685, due to Disease, Disorganization, and Disposability
Maryland Colony (1634)
Colony founded by Lord Baltimore in 1634. Designed to be a refuge for Catholics and to make profit. Gained success with tobacco farming and use of indentured servants.
Maryland Act of Toleration (1649)
Granted religious tolerations for all people of the Christian faith, regardless of sect. But, promised the death penalty for those of other religions (Jews, Atheists, etc.) While permitting Catholicism, it actually made the area less tolerant in general
British Indies
West Indies and Jamaica were under the jurisdiction of England. Sugar was the main export crop (with little foodstuff), and slaves were imported in droves (black slave to white settler ratio = 4:1)
Barbados Slave Code (1661)
Denied slaves almost all personal rights and freedoms
Leaving the Indies for the Mainland
With the sugar trade dominating the Indies (and a lack of foodstuff), many settlers left the Indies for Mainland America and the Carolinas, with slaves and slave codes in hand (hoped to grow food to trade with Indies)
Settling of Carolinas (1683)
King chartered the Carolina area to 8 Nobles. Grew its own slave trade, built itself up on rice crop. Charleston became very diverse, with religious toleration - offered a home to French Protestants (Huguenots).
Carolina Slave Trade
Carolina colonists exported droves on Indian slaves to New England and the Indies. They imported many African slaves, who had a knowledge of growing rice (the principal crop of the area)
Creation of North Carolina (1712)
Displaced, impoverished people traveled north, became Squatters and set up small, self-run farms. Officially split from South Carolina in 1712, becoming a royal colony. Very independently minded. Thought of as "riff-raff," "irreligious," and "hospitable to pirates."
Creation of Georgia, the Buffer Colony (1733)
Established in 1733, the final colony. Designed as buffer to protect valuable South Carolina from French Louisiana and Spanish Florida. Set up by philanthropists, and it became a haven for debtors. Melting pot of culture (German Lutherans, Scots Highlanders, all forms of Christianity but Catholicism).
Plantation Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, North & South Carolina. Devoted to exported profitable staple crops. All had slavery. People were very spread out - difficult to set up schools and churches
Main reasons for English
Prospect of jobs and riches. Full citizenship & rights - religious and political freedom. Overpopulation. Primogeniture (eldest son inherits all land). Enclosure movement (closed off open land)
Puritans travel to America
Puritans, wanting to remain English citizens, but disgusted with the Church of England, sailed on the Mayflower to America in 1620 (under the Virginia Company). They landed off the coast of New England (outside the VA Co.'s jurisdiction), so they became squatters.
Mayflower Compact
Document which created a loose government that worked under the principle of majority rule.
Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
Some Puritans received a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. Town governments formed (based on majority rule), with male property owners participating. "Freemen" (who received all convictions of the colony) were males in the Congregational Church. All colonists paid taxes, which supported the church. Clergymen couldn't hold office (early idea of Separation of Church and State, although the state controlled the Church).
Problems in the Bay Colony
Taxes benefitted only those in the Congregational Church. Quakers, believing in anti-Puritan authority, were punished. Minister Roger Williams (though not a Quaker) was exiled for speaking out against state ownership of the Church. Instead of leaving for England, he left for Rhode Island.
Rhode Island
In 1636, Roger Williams fled to Rhode Island. he built a Baptist Church and established religious freedom (Jews and Catholics allowed, no oaths or forced attendance at worship). He sheltered Quakers (while disagreeing with their beliefs). Soon filled with exiles unhappy in Bay Colony. Grew to be very independent-minded.
Connecticut River Valley
The fertile Connecticut River Valley was settled by some Dutch and English settlers. Hartford was established in 1635. Established the Fundamental Orders, which set up a democratic regime controlled by "substantial citizens."
New Haven
Puritans founded the city of New Haven in 1638. Had a close church-state relationship. The settlers, while only squatters, wanted to create a bustling seaport.
The Colony of Connecticut (1662)
A royal charter in 1662 merged New Haven and the Connecticut River Valley area into one colony.
Maine --> Mass. Bay Colony (1677)
Maine was an area full of fishermen and fur traders. Maine was absorbed into the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1677.
New Hampshire (1679)
New Hampshire had been absorbed by the Bay Colony in 1641, but it was made a royal colony in 1679.
New England Confederation (1643)
Plymouth, Bay Colony, New Haven, Conn. River Valley. Designed to set up defense against common foes (Indians, French, Dutch).
Bay Colony Defiance
Massachusetts was becoming more and more defiant, and was punished:
- Connecticut (MA's rival) received a sea-to-sea charter grant (1662)
- Squatter settlements legalized
- Rhode Island (the most religiously tolerant colony) received a new charter (1663)
- Bay Colony had charter revoked (1884)
New Netherlands
Dutch East India Company hires Henry Hudson to explore. Hudson discovers the Hudson River & Bay = jackpot (fertile land, bay and river for fishing and trading, forests for fur and lumber). Dutch, led by Peter Stuyvesant, build large houses (on a grid system), creating a settlement.
New York
King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York. To take the land from the Dutch, the British Army later surrounds New Netherlands and the Dutch quickly surrender. New York officially becomes a royal colony.
Formed by William Penn (a wealthy English Quaker). Very revolutionary: pacifists, with friendly relationship with Indians; no tax-supported Churches, pastors, or reverends (just a large, group meeting); everybody had an equal relationship to God (even women); religious toleration; heavy abolitionists
New Jersey (1702)
Initially a part of New York, it was given to George Carteret and Lord Berkeley, who became the colonies English proprietors. The colony was later split into East Jersey and West Jersey. The two sides were reunited into one unified royal colony.
While technically under the jurisdiction of governor William Penn, Delaware was granted its own assembly to act as a democratic body, forming the Colony of Delaware.
3 Colonial Areas
- New England (North): Bay Colony, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire
- Middle Colonies (Bread Colonies): New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
- Chesapeake Colonies (South, Plantation Colonies): Maryland, Virginia, North & South Carolina, Georgia