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CurveSetter Psych 8 (Learning)
Terms in this set (25)
Types of non-associative learning
habituation, dishabituation, sensitization, and desensitization
largely take place in the CNS
Not the same as sensory adaptation which occurs at the level of sensory receptors in the PNS
decrease in responsiveness to a repeated stimulus
after a repeated stimulus is removed for a period of time then reintroduced, there is enhanced responsiveness to it
usually habituation --> stimulus removed --> stimulus reintroduced --> dishabituation
Increase in responsiveness to a repeated stimulus
occurs when stimulus becomes associated with a certain response or with another stimulus; largely includes all learning except for habituation, dishabituation, and sensitization
learning in animals that must occur during a particular critical period
having a sudden realization due to a flash of inspiration; an ah-hah moment
learning that occurs passively, without obvious reinforcement of behavior; learned behavior is not expressed immediately, but when the behavior is required
tendency of an animal to revert back to instinctive behaviors during the process of conditioning
Classical conditioning and famous experiment
repeatedly pairing a stimulus that produces an innate/reflexive response with a neutral stimulus until the neutral stimulus also evokes that response on its own
Pavlov (Pavlov's dogs)
During classical conditioning, _________ (food) produces a reflexive ______________ (salivation)
_______________ (bell) produces no response.
During conditioning, __________ is repeatedly paired with _____________, resulting in the _______________.
Over time, the ________________ becomes associated with (and is predictive of) the _________________.
After conditioning, ________________ has become a ________________ once it can elicit the reflexive response, now called a _________________, when presented alone
Operant conditioning and who's famous for it
occurs when the frequency of a behavior is increased or decreased due to the presentation of a consequence that follows it (reinforcement or punishment)
add appetitive/desirable stimulus to increase a correct behavior
remove undesired/noxious stimulus to increase a correct behavior
add undesired/noxious stimulus to decrease incorrect behavior
remove appetitive/desirable stimulus to decrease incorrect behavior
learning to avoid an unwanted stimulus that would arrive after the correct behavior is not performed (avoid impending stimulus)
learning occurs to get rid of an ongoing and unwanted stimulus
Stop ongoing stimulus
Law of Effect
underlies the principles of operant conditioning; says that behaviors that result in a desirable outcome will increase in frequency and behaviors that result in undesirable outcome will decrease in frequency
Primary reinforcement vs. Secondary reinforcement
Primary reinforcement: biologically (innately) appetitive stimuli
Ex. food, water, sex, addictive drugs
Secondary (conditioned) reinforcement: stimuli that must have been conditioned at some point to be seen as desirable to the learned
Ex. money, text message notification, good grades, school-bell ringing, etc.
Which schedule of reinforcement is the best and quickest way to reinforce new behavior?
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