Micro Exam 1 (Ch. 1, 2, 3, & 4)

Terms in this set (305)

Glycocalyx: a coating or layer of molecules external to the cell wall. It serves protective, adhesive, and receptor functions. It may fit tightly or be very loose and diffuse.

Bacterial chromosome or nucleoid: composed of condensed DNA molecules. DNA directs all genetics and hereditary of the cell and codes for all proteins.

Plasmid: double-stranded DNA circle containing extra genes.

Pilus: an elongate, hollow appendage used in transfers of DNA to other cells.

Ribosomes: Tiny particles composed of protein and RNA that are the sites of protein synthesis.

Actin cytoskeleton: long fibers of protein that encircle the cell just inside the cell membrane and contribute to the shape of the cell.

Flagellum: specialized appendage attached to the cell by a basal body that holds a long rotating filament. The movement pushes the cell forward and provides motility

Fimbriae: fine, hairlike bristles extending from the cell surface the help in adhesion to other cells and surfaces

Inclusion/Granule: stored nutrients such as fat, phosphate or glycogen deposited in dense crystals or particles that can be tapped into when needed

Cell wall: a semigrid casing that provides structural support and shape for the cell

Cell (cytoplasmic) membrane: a thin sheet of lipid and protein that surrounds the cytoplasm and controls the flow of materials into and out of the cell pool

Outer membrane: extra membrane similar to cell membrane but also containing lipopolysaccharide. Controls flow of toxic materials and portions of it are toxic mammals when released

Endospore: Dormant body formed within some bacteria that allows for their survival in adverse conditions

Cytoplasm: water-based solution filling the entire cell