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66 terms

Skeletal System

STUDY
PLAY
functions of bones
support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)
long bones
Ex. femur, humerus
short bones
Ex. wrist, ankle
Flat bones
Ex. skull
Irregular bones
Ex. Vertebra
compact bone
the external layer of bones
spongy bone
the internal layer of bones
diaphysis
long shaft of the bone
medullary cavity
inside the diaphysis which houses the bone marrow
episysis
ends of the bone
periosteum
outer most covering, makes the bone shiny
endosteum
lines the medullary cavity
yellow marrow
In adults, the medullary cavity contains fat, AKA _______.
Red marrow
As infants, all marrow is ______.
Red blood cells
In adults, yellow marrow can revert to red marrow if a person needs _____.
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
osteoclasts
bone-destroying cells
osteocytes
mature bone cells
periosteum and endosteum
the osteoblasts & osteoclasts are found in the _______ and ______.
osteons
circular structures
simple
Bone fracture that doesn't penetrate the skin, bone is broken into 2 pieces
compound
Bone fracture that DOES penetrate the skin, usually bone becomes infected and requires heavy antibiotics
comminuted
Bone fracture in which bone fragments into many pieces (usually happens in brittle bones)
depressed
Bone fracture in which broken bone portion is pressed inwards (skull)
impacted
Bone fracture in which broken ends are forded into each other (shoulder, hip)
spiral
Bone fracture in which twisting force applied to bone (common sports injury)
greenstick
Bone fracture that is an incomplete break (common in children)
8-12 weeks
Normally, healing of fractures takes ____. (longer in elderly)
Fracture Hematoma
1st stage of fracture healing - broken vessels form a blood clot
Granulation Tissue
2nd stage of fracture healing - fibrous tissue formed by fibroblasts and infiltrated by capillaries
Callus formation
3rd stage of fracture healing - soft callus of fibrocartilage replaced by hand callus of bine in 6 weeks
Remodeling
4th stage of fracture healing - occurs over next 6 month as spongy bone is replaced w/ compact bone
7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae
the spine includes ______, ______, _______
7 true, 5 false, 2 floating, 12 total on each side
the ribs include ____, ____, ____, _______
osteoporosis
depletion of the bone, commonly found in elderly, bone becomes more porous & less compact
rickets
due to a deficiency of calcium or vitamin D, usually found in children, most visible sign is bowed legs
scoliosis
lateral curvature of the spine, commonly found in young girls, unknown cause, can be treated w/ surgery or various braces
kyphosis
hunchback, curvature of spine in bent over position, commonly found in women w/ OSTEOPOROSIS
lordosis
swayback, curvature of the spine where the hips protrude forward, commonly found in pregnant women / men with potbellies, can be permanent/temporary
arthritis
many types, usually involves degeneration of bone, 5° of severity (each indicating 20 yrs), can be crippled & very painful
osteoarthritis
most common of all types (50% of all cases), degenerative joint disease, sometimes due to aging or from cartilage destruction, treated w/ drugs (Vioxx & Celebrex)
rheumatoid arthritis
common in men/women 40-50, joing stiffness & tenderness, occurs bilaterally, synovial joint swelling
arthrology
the study of joints
kinesesiology
the study of musculoskeletal movement
diarthrosis
freely movable joints
amphiarthrosis
slightly movable joints
synarthrosis
little or no movement of joints
fibrous
bone ends/parts are united by collagen fibers
cartilaginous
bone ends are united by cartilage
synovial
bone ends are covered w/ articular cartilage, and lined w/ synovial fluid
suture
[Fibrous joints]
between the bones in the skull (immobile)
gomphosis
[Fibrous joints]
teeth (immobile)
syndesmosis
[Fibrous joints]
between radius/ulna, connected by tendon or ligament and CT (slightly mobile)
synchondroses
[Cartilaginous joints]
connect ribs to sternum (immobile)
symphysis
[Cartilaginous joints]
vertebrae (slightly mobile)
plane
[Synovial joints]
between carpals & tarsals (gliding movements)
hinge
[Synovial joints]
knee, elbow, humerus, ulna
pivot joints
[Synovial joints]
first bone rotated on its longitudinal axis relative to the other (raius, ulna)
condyloid
[Synovial joints]
knuckles, hands, fingers
ball and socket
[Synovial joints]
shoulder, hip
saddle
[Synovial joints]
thumb
dislocation
bones are forced out of their normal positions at a joint
bursitis
inflammation of bursasac (usually from falling directly on elbow/knee)
tendonitis
inflammation of tendon sheath, usually caused by overuse
achondroplastic dwarfism
short stature, but normal sized head & trunk
(long bones of limbs stop growing in childhood but other bones unaffected)
result of spontaneous mutation
pituitary dwarfism
has lack of growth hormone
(short stature w/ normal proportions)