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AP US History - French & Indian War (Seven Years' War)
A review of info from the first half of AP US History (Book: The American Pageant)
Terms in this set (19)
France Explores Canada
France was a latecomer to the exploration game, but in 1608 permanent settlements starting being formed in Quebec. Samuel de Champlain led Canada ("Father of New France") Canada later went under direct jurisdiction of the king.
French & Indians
The French and Indians had a friendly relationship. The two groups traded with each other (beaver fur was a primary trade staple). Catholic missionaries, often called Jesuits, tried to convert the Indians.
New France Fans Out
Robert LaSalle exploring the extent of Spain's empire, reached & named Louisiana. The French tried to claim the Gulf of Mexico, fortifying Mississippi & Louisiana. New Orleans was established as a bustling seaport. Grain from Illinois and other areas could travel down the Mississippi River to New Orleans for shipment elsewhere.
- King William's War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) pitted British colonists against French fur traders (used primitive guerilla warfare). French gained support from Indians and Spain. The Brits were able to sandwich the French between the colonies and Spanish territory. The British eventually gained extra land, leading to the colonies receiving 'salutary neglect'
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
The War of Jenkins Ear (1739) pitted the Brits and Spaniards against each other in the Caribbean. Eventually merged with King George's War (between New England and the Spanish-supported New France)
Washington Sparks a War With France
The Ohio River Valley was pivotal in keeping the French Empire together. But, 1749, British Colonists (among them, George Washington) gained legal "rights" to the area. Washington, as lieutenant colonel, was sent with a militia to claim the land in 1754. A fight emerges and the French surrender. The French & Indian War breaks out
Seven Years' War (1756)
Fought between France and England, in North America, Europe, West Indies, Philippines, Africa, and on the Ocean. Officially declared in 1756.
Set up towards the beginning of the war, designed to gain Iroquois support and to unify the colonies (although only 7 of the 13 colonies sent representatives [All four New England Colonies, NY, MD, and PA])
Due to extreme differences on both sides, tensions quickly developed between the colonists and the British
General Braddock was marching to Fort Duquesne (and not paying attention) when his army was attacked by surprise and defeated by a small French & Indian group. Left Washington alone with 300 troops.
Aftermath of Braddock
Left many small groups of soldiers, without prominent leaders, who tried to invade Canada: they attacked small outposts and forts, instead of banding together and aiming for large cities - they were consistently beaten and became tired
Pitt Takes Control
William Pitt took over as Britain's foreign minister. He steered the Brits in the right direction, attacking the French Indies and Quebec. Montreal fell, and France had lost the war.
The Treaty of Paris (1763)
A treaty that completely eliminated the French from North America and India and established Brittan as the most powerful imperial power in Europe, which rendered it diplomatically isolated. Spain gained land west of the Mississippi River and New Orleans, but gave Florida to Britain.
Effects of the War of Britain
- Increased its colonial empire in the Americas
- Greatly enlarged Britain's debt
- Bitter feelings towards colonists (based on the unprofessional manner in which they acted during the war)
- Felt a major reorganization of its American empire was necessary
Effects of the War of Colonies
- United them against a common enemy for the first time (common purpose)
- Created a social experience for the colonies
- Created bitter feelings towards Brits that would only grow
Differences Between the British and French during the War
- Fighting Methods: The Americans used Indian style guerilla warfare; The Brits marched in formation, or had bayonet charges
- Military Organizations: American colonial militias served under their own captains; British officers wanted to take charge of the colonists & militias
- Military Discipline: For Americans, no military disciplines or protocol observed; Brits used Drills and tough discipline
- Finances: Americans Resisted rising taxes (being used to the support the war); Brits believed that the Colonists should pay for their own defense
- Demeanor: Americans were casual and non-professional; Brits had Prima-donna officers, with servant and tea settings - acted very professionally
The Indians & Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
The Indians, who had mainly supported the French, did not want colonists moving west, and Pontiac's rebellion was an attempt by Indians to prevent that.
The Proclamation of 1763
British established a line along the Appalachian Mountains, forbidding the colonists from moving west of the line
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