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40 terms

Kendall's Bio Unit 2

STUDY
PLAY
Metabolism
All of the life processes taking place in an organism
Anabolism
Building up
Catabolism
Breaking Down
Nutrition
Get materials from enviroment to modify and use for energy, growth, repair, and maintenence. The two types are Autotrophic(plants) and Heterotrophic(animals)
Transport
Movement of materials within an organism or its cells
Respiration
Release of energy from food
Anaerobic: Without Oxygen
Aerobic: With Oxygen
Excretion
Removal of cellular wastes (ex: carbon dioxide and water)
Regulation
Maintenance of Homeostasis
Synthesis
Produce complex substances from simple substances (ex: photosynthesis = carbon dioxide and water ----> glucose and oxygen)
Growth
Increase in size
Replication and growth of cells
Locomotion
Ability to move from place to place
Not necessary to be considered living but increases probability of survival
Reproduction
Organism makes new individual(s)
Asexual- Single Parent, Offspring are clones of Parent
Sexual- Two Parents, offspring are unique
Not Necessary to be considered living but increases probability for the survival and continuation of a group or species.
Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic units of all stucture and function of living things
3. All cells come from preexisting cells
Exception to the Cell Theory
Viruses:
-Have Genetic Material
-Not made up of cells
-Reproduce inside another cell (host cell)
Prokaryotes
Pro= No
No Nucleus
Eukaryotes
Have a nucleus
Have Organelles
(All Plants and Animals)
Cell Membrane
Semi permeable membrane surrounding all cells that controls what goes into and out of the cell (Phospholipid bilayer)
Nucleus
Controls cell activities, contains chromosomes and nucleolus
Nuclear Membrane
surrounds nucleus, controls what goes into and out of the nucleus
Nucleolus
Makes ribosomes
Mitochondria
Provides cell with energy
Where respiration takes place
Golgi Bodies
Make, package, and secrete cell products
Endoplasmic Reticulum
The transport system throughout the cell
Rough- has ribosomes
Smooth- No ribosomes
Ribosomes
Protein synthesis
Free in cytoplasm and attached to Rough ER
Chloroplast
Contain Chlorophyll
site of photosynthesis
Only in Plant cells
Lysosomes
Contain Digestive Enzymes
Only in Animal cells
Centrioles
Used during cell division
Only in Animal Cells
Vacuole
Stores food and waste
Bigger in plant cells
Cytoplasm
Watery fluid inside cell that holds organelles and is the site of chemical reactions
Cell Wall
Surrounds ONLY PLANT CELL
Cellulose wall of protection
Cell Plate
Divides the cell during cell division
Forms new cell wall
PLANT CELL ONLY
Phospholipids
Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tail
Cells have watery internal and external enviroments
Keeps hydroPHOBIC tail away from water
Facilitated Diffusion
Uses a protein
Hypotonic Solution
Water will diffuse into the cell and the cell will expand
ex: Distilled water because there are no minerals and it is pure water
Lower solute concentration than cell
Hypertonic Solution
Water diffuses out of the cell, so the cell will shrink/shrivel.
Ex: Salt water
Higher solute concentration than cell
Isotonic Solution
Water diffuses into and out of the cell at an equal rate
Through all types of solutions, the cell wall ___________
allows materials in and out
Endocytosis
Pinocytosis- liquids and solutes
Phagocytosis- Solid Particles
Exocytosis
removes materials out of the cell
Levels of Organization
Cells, Tissue, Organs, Organ Systems, Organism