Terms in this set (51)
a broad range of devices, services, strategies, & practices that are conceived & applied to ameliorate the problems faced by individuals who have disabilities
defined as any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device
assistive technology services
all facets of the process that starts with the identification of the client's needs for assistive technology and culminates with the ongoing outcome evaluation of the use of acquired technology .
AT service delivery
describes someone (human) doing something (an activity) in context (work, play, etc) using assistive technology
HAAT (human activity assistive technology)
includes the person's abilities in motor, sensory, cognitive, and affective areas so these areas need to be assessed initially and ongoing.
human component (HAAT)
describes the influences of physical, social, cultural, and institutional environments or contexts on the access to , service delivery and use of technology
- physical, social, cultural, & institutional
component is any execution of a task that a person needs or want to engage in that includes the temporal aspects of length and frequency of participation in the activity, such as multiple times a day, weekly, monthly
the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design
equitable use, flexibility in use, simple & intuitive use, perceptible information, tolerance for error, low physical effort, and size & space for approach and use
Universal Design principles
refers to the actual, tangible device, such as computer hardware, an AAC device, a hearing aid, or a mobility device
refers to the less tangible aspects that support the use of a device, including other people, written or auditory materials, and computer software
the allocation of functions in any human/device system in which some functions are allocated to the human, some to the device, and some to the personal assistant services
the simplest approach; here each task to be carried out is assigned completely to the human or the device. The user's skills define the task that can be assigned to her, and the characteristics of the technology determine which capabilities are assigned to it; we often use comparison allocation when matching characteristics of technology to a consumer's skills.
as many functions as possible are assigned to the human, and the device carries out the remainder. In AT system design, this approach is often followed to give the consumer as much natural control over his activities as possible, but to provide assistance when needed.
the basic consideration is whether it is cheaper to select, train, and pay a personal assistant to do the activity or to design an AT system for this purpose. Often the economic analysis initially favors the personal assistant because the purchase cost of the technology is relatively high. However, if the technology cost is amortized over its useful life, the technological approach may be significantly less expensive because the personal assistant cost (salary) rises over time
the user can vary his or her degree of participation in the activity based on skills and needs. Whenever possible, we use this approach in the AT systems, and we couple the use of the AT system with personal assistant services (PAS). The human and technology components are not fixed in scope; rather, they change based on the specific activities and tasks to be carried out Example: initially with a cell phone, they may rely on intuitive skills and only use the most basic features like dialing a phone number, but as knowledge of the device increases and strategies are developed then more advanced features may be used like contacts and texting; this way more tasks such as remembering numbers are assigned to the device and the user is free to do other things
the right to self-determination and freedom from unnecessary constraints, interference, or loss of privacy
requires faithful, loyal, honest, and trustworthy behavior
connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity; "all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons ... helping them to further their important and legitimate interests . . . "
the principle of not causing harm to others directly or through avoidance of actions that risk harming others
deals with the issue of fairness in individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal contexts
a medical or osteopathic doctor who has been trained to examine, diagnose, and treat eyes. Only one who can perform surgery. Can also prescribe glasses/contacts to correct vision problems
not a medical doctor who can perform eye exams and vision tests, prescribing and dispensing corrective lenses, detecting certain eye abnormalities, and prescribing medications for certain eye diseases.
Opticians are technicians trained to design, verify and fit eyeglass lenses and frames, contact lenses, and other devices to correct eyesight. They use prescriptions supplied by ophthalmologists or optometrists, but do not test vision or write prescriptions for visual correction.
participates in evaluation of needs of person with low vision. Refers to other professionals as needed. Determines appropriate assistive devices.
handheld magnifiers, stand magnifiers, field expanders, telescopes
enlarged print, high-intensity lamps, daily living aids, high-contrast objects
CCTV's, slide projectors, opaque projectors, microfiche readers
deliver hearing aid output into the listener's ear canal. Consist of behind the ear, in the ear, in the canal, and completely in the canal versions.
or those who cannot wear air conduction hearing aids due to chronic ear infections or malformed ear canals. Most common is bone-anchored which is an abutment surgically attached to the skull in which is eventually covered by healing bone.
used by Hellen Keller, the person receives information by placing his/her hands on the speaker's face, with thumbs on lips, index finger on the sides of nose, little fingers on throat, and other fingers on cheek.
use a standard keyboard and visual display for the non-disabled person, and a braille keyboard and display for the person who is deaf/blind.
keyboard & display method
provides capability for the deaf/blind person to talk to other people who have a TTY or, through a relay operator, to anyone with a telephone. The keyboards (braille and QWERTY) and displays (braille and visual) allow face-to-face communication.
microphone with transmitter, sound field systems
small group devices
hardwired earphone jacks, FM transmitter, audio induction loops
large group devices
closed captioning TV and movies, real time captioning, captioning by automatic speech recognition
for those who can speak but not hear; is a phone that allows communication by both voice and text
voice carry-over (VCO)
for those who can hear but not speak; is a phone that allows those to type their message and listen to the response.
hearing carry-over (HCO)
estures, facial expressions, and body movements help display emotional states, regulate and maintain a conversation, and support information Exchange.
no tech AAC
fers to inexpensive devices that are simple to make an easy to obtain. Communication cards are on a chain worn around the neck of the person.
low tech AAC
efers to devices that have electronic components some devices with limited function are called light Technologies ( The light pointer). high technology devices have many choices and typically provide speech output. some devices include computers, mobile phones, tablets with special softwares.
high tech AAC
describe communication behaviors that require only the person's own body such as pointing and other gestures, pantomime, facial expressions, eye gaze and manual signing or fingerspelling.
unaided communication or body beast
may include a pen or pencil a letter or picture communication board, a computer, a cell phone, and an SGD. Aided AAC may be either electronic or non-electronic. Although a paper letterboard differs from a communication based SGD both non-electric and electric devices require that the person uses a symbol system and have a way to select messages.
has a greatest understanding of communication in general and can assess language and communication needs, abilities, and skills
speech language patthologist
sets educational goals and oversees classroom implementation of each child's AAC system
arries out the motor evaluation, addresses seating and positioning, evaluates physical access to the AAC system and has knowledge of how to support writing, drawing and other activities of daily living
PT or OT
critical to the success of implementation. Supports the person in school / work setting.
is helpful in defining the range of partners that a person withCCN who relies onAAC might encounter
circle of communication partners
represents the person's lifelong communication partner( immediate family members)
1st circle (circle of communication partners)
Includes close friends( not often family members)
2nd circle (circle of communication partners)
Acquaintances such as neighbors, schoolmates, co-workers, distant relatives.
3rd circle (circle of communication)