Final Exam for 1301 Hill @ Night
Terms in this set (54)
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty. This was a repeal of the Missouri Compromise
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen. But the court went on to say that under the 5th amendment of due process, people's property remains theirs anywhere in the US. So all are now slave states.
John Brown's Raid
Began when he and his men took over the arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in hopes of starting a slave rebellion. The event intensified Southern fears of slave rebellions, made Southerners believe the Union couldn't really protect them, and the execution of Brown made him a martyr.
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery & consisted of Whigs, N. Democrats, & Free-Soilers in defiance to the Slave Powers.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won (electoral college votes but not the majority of popular votes) because the Democratic party was split over slavery. His campaign platform included a high tariff, the homestead act, and $ for the transcontinental railroad---THERE WAS NOTHING ABOUT SLAVERY.
James Buchanan (1857-1861)
From Lincoln's election in November to inauguration in March, seven states seceded from the union. Buchanan knew this was illegal but did nothing to stop it.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War. Shooting began because Lincoln sought to resupply the fort.
Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)
Transferred public acreage to the state governments which could sell land and use proceeds for the establishment of agricultural colleges (for example, Texas A&M). Called "Land-Grant" colleges, it help spread public education in America.
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30
National Bank Act of 1863
Required national banks to have one-third of their capital invested in United States securities. Also, taxed state bank notes thereby driving them out of circulation.
Encouraged development of a national currency.
Proclamation issued by Lincoln, freeing all slaves in areas still at war with the Union.
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
A large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000. Gettysburg is the war's most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and for President Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. Lee never again invaded the Union.'
13th Amendment (1865)
Abolition of slavery w/o compensation for slave-owners
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Bans recognition of any state that fails to give citizen privileges 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office,
14th Amendment results
When states refused to guarantee equality of citizenship, moderate republicans were persuaded to support the policies of the Radical Republicans
Black Codes/Jim Crow Laws
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves and thereby keep African Americans in a position of servility.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president Andrew Johnson from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet. His refusal to comply resulted in an indictment of impeachment but he was NOT removed.
15th Amendment (1870)
U.S. cannot prevent a person from voting because of race, color, or creed
Union Advantages in the Civil War
stronger navy, larger population, more industrial output and a network of railroads, more food, more $$$, more telegraphs, more factories
Confederate Advantages in the Civil War
-Best military officers
-long coastlines (difficult to blockade)
-fighting on own soil
Election of 1876/Compromise of 1877
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
Florida Purchase Treaty
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas. gave american southwest to spain
the confident, manifest destiny spirit of the Americans in the 1840's and 50's. Expansionists began to think about transmitting the dynamic, democratic spirit of the US to other countries by aiding revolutionaries, opening up new markets, and annexing foreign lands
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Results of the Civil War
No slavery anymore, states couldn't secede anymore, sped up the development of industry, Federal Government had more power over the states
John Locke's contributions
Social contract (btwn the citizen and the state) and natural rights. He said our natural rights were to life, liberty and property. Jefferson borrowed from him in writing the Declaration of Independence.
Halfway Covenant (1662)
Because church membership was on the decline, a Puritan compromise that allowed the unconverted children of Puritans who had fallen away from the church to become halfway members of the church. The Covenant allowed these halfway members to baptize their own children even though they themselves were not full members of the church because they had not experienced full conversion. Massachusetts ministers accepted this compromise and it signified a drop in the religious zeal or mission that had characterized Massachusetts in its change in the religious character of New England Society.
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson. This over turned the popular and electoral leader, Jackson. Clay was then appointed Secretary of State in the Adam's administration.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere. Europe could no longer colonize in the Western Hemisphere and we the US would stay out of European affairs.
Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase will be Jefferson's finest achievement and at the same time test his principles as a strict constructionist. He did not think the Constitution permitted the purchase. Finally deciding that the President had the power to negotiate treaties Jefferson put the Purchase in the form of a treaty in order to adhere to his basic principles.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution these protect individual liberties from the infringement of the Federal Legislature. (Making states recognize your rights came gradually but is in place by the 1920s).
Whig Party (1833-1856)
Formed in opposition to the policies of Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party.
Henry Clay, Daniel Webster
Supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review over actions of the Federal Legislature. The Supreme Court will judge the Constitutionality of Congressional Acts.
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance and action in the Boston Tea Party It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes.
Sect. State: Thomas Jefferson
Sect. Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Sect. War: Henry Knox
This administration was significant as it addressed framing the financial system of the day.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Tea Act of 1773
Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy.
Articles of Confederation weaknesses
Lacked Executive and Judicial branches, lacked power to tax, did not have exclusive power to provide a currency and could not regulate trade
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
a law that established a procedure for the admission of new states to the Union
Ordinance of Nullification (1832)
declared the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff of 1832 unconstitutional, and null and void within the borders of South Carolina, beginning the Nullification Crisis. Jackson was determined to use military force. Clay stepped in a worked out a compromise.
Civil War Causes
Cultural difference between the North and South, ideas about slavery and it's expansion into the newly acquired territories. Basic differences in understanding of from where does the nation's powers lie. States vs. Federal Government.
Texas Annexation 1845
Although most Texans favored annexation by the U.S., relations with Mexico and Texas's slave status were obstacles. Many politicians (Northern) didn't want to tip power in the senate to pro-slavery states.
Oregon Territory 1846
split the territory with Great Britain. We gave up the cry for 54.40 or Fight.
Causes of the American Revolution
1. Taxation 2. Revocation of Royal Charters 3. Enforcement of Navigation Acts 4. British Demands for Colonists to pay for cost of French and Indian War. 5. Oppression by King 6. Interference of Parliament in Colonial Affairs. 7. No Representation in Parliament. 8.Quartering soldiers 9. Britain had broken our social contract as full citizens of Britain and following the writings of John Locke we had the right to change our government.
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
Sugar Act of 1764
An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
England, France, and Spain
In competition with each other over territory in the New World
British influence in America
the majority of settlers who came to the Atlantic seaboard were British. They brought their language, religion, customs and lifestyles with them. Their shared identity included 1. commercial ties with England, the spread of Enlightenment ideas and they fought together against a common enemy in the French and Indian war.