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OB practice test 3&4
Terms in this set (176)
Which one of the following central nervous anomalies demonstrates splaying of the cerebellar hemispheres on ultrasound?
Which one of the following defects is associated with Meckel-Gruber syndrome?
A discrete or long-segment narrowing in the aortic arch, usually at the level of the left subclavian artery near the insertion of the ductus arteriosus, is called which one of the following?
Coarctation of the aorta
A benign tumor of the heart within the myometrium is which one of the following?
Which one of the following imaging planes is best for imaging the cleft lip and palate?
A 26-year-old gravid patient presents to the ultrasound department for routine dating. Upon sonographic interrogation of the fetal head, the transverse diameter of the atrium of the lateral ventricle measure 1.2 cm. Echogenic materials is noted suspended within the lateral ventricle as well. What is the term used to describe this appearance?
Dangling choroid sign
Which of the following may lead to a right-sided diaphragmatic hernia, in which case the entire liver may herniate into the fetal chest?
Foramen of Morgagni hernis
The sonographic findings of a 24-week gestation include an enlarged cisterna magna that communicates with an enlarged fourth ventricle. These sonographic findings are most consistent with the diagnosis of:
All of the following are associated with spina bifida except:
Absent cerebellar vermis
The sonographic findings of a 30-week gestation includes anopthalmia and a medium cleft lip. These findings would most likely be associated with which of the following?
Upon sonographic assessment of a 33-week fetus, you visualize a complex mass protruding from the occipital region of the cranium. Further analysis reveals that the mass contains brain tissue only. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Upon ultrasound interrogation of the gravid uterus, you discover a fetal cranium obviously filled with anechoic fluid. You suspect hydranencephaly verse severe hydrocephalus. Which of the following would not be sonographic features of hydranencephaly?
Presence of cerebral cortex
Upon sonographic analysis of a 31-week fetus, you visualize an echogenic, triangular-shaped mass within the fetal chest. Which of the following would most likely result in this manifestation?
Which of the following would not be considered a neural tube defect?
A 38-year-old gravid patient presents to the ultrasound department with a history of suspected fetal epignathus. Epignathus is best described as:
The presence of an oral teratoma
The most common neck mass is:
The most common congenital anomaly of the face is:
What is a term describing a small chin?
The most important determinant for fetal viability is:
A congenital heart lesion in which only one great artery arises from the base of the heart is:
The aorta is connected to the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery is connected to the left ventricle in which one of the following conditions?
Transposition of the great vessels
All of the following are sonographic features of agenesis of the corpus collosum except:
Agenesis of the vermis
Which of the following is not true about anencephaly?
Decrease levels of alpha feto-protein
A neural tube defect characterized by the lack of development of the cerebellar hemispheres and cranial vault.
Which of the following results from the calcification of the papillary muscle or chordae tendineae?
Echogenic intracardial focus
Which of the following is the most severe form of holoprosencephaly, characterized by a single common ventricle and malformed brain?
In which of the following is the right ventricle contiguous with the right atrium, a finding referred to as an "atrialized" right ventricle?
The normal position of the heart in the left chest, with the cardiac apex pointed to the left
This is the congenital absence of the cerebral hemispheres resulting from an occlusion of the carotid arteries. The midbrain structures are present, and fluid replaces cerebral tissue.
An open spinal defect characterized by protrusion of meninges and spinal cord through the defect, usually within a meningeal sac is called:
Conditions commonly associated with fetal hydrocephalus include all except which of the following?
Choroid plexus cyst
Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles, resulting in compression and frequently destruction of brain tissue?
Which of the following is the most common open neural tube defect?
Which of the following fetal head anomalies is characterized by the presence of a single primitive ventricle?
Which of the following statements about anencephaly is incorrect?
Anencephaly has a male prevalence
Which of the following statements about microcephaly is incorrect?
Commonly identified in diabetic mothers
Macroglossia is associated with:
A frog like appearance is a feature of:
--------------------- is a condition characterized by a decreased distance between the orbits.
Prenatal diagnosis of atrial septal defects can be difficult because:
The presence of the foramen of ovale
The most serious form of spina bifida is?
The most common site of obstruction in the brain causing hydrocephalus is?
Aqueduct of Sylvia
A cyst within the brain of the fetus that almost always regresses with advancing gestational age is a:
Choroid Plexus Cyst
Which of the following statements is FALSE with respect to holoprosencephaly?
Holoprosencephaly the most common open neural tube defect
Atrial septal defect:
Defects in the wall separating the two atria
Which of the following is true about ventricular septal defects?
Associated with trisomies
Holoprosencephaly is a central nervous system disorder that develops because of failure of the _________ to properly cleave in the early stages of development.
Divergence (splaying) of the posterior elements of the fetal spine is suggestive of:
Lateral displacement of the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles, upward displacement of the third ventricle, absence of the CSP, and associated neurologic abnormalities describe:
Agenesis of the corpus callosum
A patient at 21 weeks of gestation with an elevated AFP is referred for ultrasound examination. The sonographer visualizes a cystic dilation adjacent to the sacral portion of the spine. Which of the following could be considered as diagnostic possibilities?
The "dangling choroid sign" is indicative of:
The most common location for a spina bifida to occur is?
A disorder of the central nervous system in which a cyst or cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid develops in the cerebral hemisphere is called:
In case of aqueductal stenosis the ventricular system which appears normal is:
In the fetus with pulmonary hypoplasia, which of the following conditions could be the causative agent?
A Bochdalek hernia is located:
Posterolaterally on the left side
A congenital anomaly of the lung characterized by congenital cysts and respiratory distress on the first day of life:
Cystic adenomatoid malformation
The most common cardiac abnormality in the fetus is?
Ventricular septal defect
A VSD, an overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy & possible pulmonary stenosis describes what anomaly?
Tetrology of Fallot
An echogenic intracardiac focus is most often seen within:
The left ventricle of the heart
In classifying congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations, three types have been described. Which of the following are true?
Type I - CCAM has large cysts (often > 2-10 cm) that appear macrocystic on ultrasound examination.
All of the following are true for Type III - CCAM except:
It appears as a solid hypoechoic mass
Mortality rate for congenital diaphragmatic hernia is very high due to:
The U/S appearance of pulmonary sequestration is:
Homogenous echogenic appearing solid mass
The most common form of cyanotic heart disease is which one of the following?
Tetralogy of Fallot
Which of the following statements about facial anomalies is correct?
Facial anomalies occur as isolated defects or as part of a syndrome
Cyclopia is defines as:
Only one eye
Microcephaly is associated with:
Nuchal folds are typically measured anywhere between
15 - 19 weeks
Which heart abnormality is commonly associated with Down's syndrome?
Atrioventricular septal defect
Meningoencephalocele is defined as:
Herniation of the brain tissue, meanings & CSF
Epstein's anomaly is?
Abnormality of the tricuspid valve
All of the following features are factors associated with Tetralogy of Fallot EXCEPT:
Downward displacement of tricuspid valve leaflets
A condition in which the AV orifice of the heart fails to separate into tricuspid and mitral valves is called:
Endocardial cushion defect
A condition in which the heart is located in the right side of the chest and the cardiac apex points to the right is:
Chest circumference measurements are made in the transverse plane at the level of the:
Four chambers of the heart
The most common lung cyst detected prenatally is:
Ectopia cordis is:
A birth defect in which the heart is abnormally located
Heart defect which could be lethal to the fetus is:
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
The sonographic investigation of an 18-week fetus reveals malposition of the heart and an anechoic mass noted adjacent to the fetal heart in the four-chamber heart view. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
The most common fetal thoracic abnormality is:
Which of the following terms best describes a skeletal dysplasia in which the entire extremity is shortened?
Transposition of the liver and stomach is a feature of:
VACTERL is a group of anomalies associated with which one of the following?
A third trimester fetus demonstrates abdominal calcification and polyhydraminos. This is suspicious for:
Which statement about sacrococcygeal teratoma is false?
It is always a benign tumor
A condition in which both ovarian and testicular tissues are present is ______________.
The classic triad of Beck with-Weidman syndrome are all except:
Differential diagnosis for the double bubble sign include all except which of the following?
Which of the following is not US appearance of esophageal atresia?
Abnormalities usually associated with an omphalocele include:
Ultrasound findings associated with meconium ileus includes all except:
Camptomelic dysplasia is characterized by shortening or bowing of the long bones. Which bones are most affected by this condition?
Which of the following is not the cause of duodenal atresia?
What condition is associated with bilateral renal agenesis, oligohydraminos, and fusion of the lower extremities?
Which statement about the fetal stomach is incorrect?
Duodenal atresia is the most common cause of nonvisualization of the stomach.
If omphalocele and scoliosis are found in the fetus, what anomaly should be considered?
Limb-body wall complex
A complex disorder of the bowel and genitourinary tract is called:
The birth defect in which the sex of the fetus cannot be determines defined as:
Which statement about an omphalocele is correct?
The defect is central
Which of the following would result in compensatory hypertrophy?
Unilateral renal agenesis
Apodia is defined as:
Absence of feet
What is the term for enlargement of the urinary bladder?
The "lying down" adrenal sign describes the sonographic findings of:
A gravid 37-year-old patient presents to the ultrasound department with a history of "small for dates." Sonographic findings of the 28-week live intrauterine pregnancy includes a sixth digit on the left hand, an occipital encephalocele, and bilateral enlarged echogenic kidneys. Which of the following would be most likely?
A 32-week gestation fetus appears to have unilateral hydronephrosis. What measurement could be obtained to confirm the presence of this abnormality?
Renal pelvis diameter >10 mm
Which of the following includes ectopic cord is as a characteristic finding of the condition?
Pentology of Canterell
Upon sonographic interrogation of a 30-week fetus, you discover that the right hand is missing. What is this finding most consistent with?
Amniotic band syndrome
Which of the following would not typically be associated with oligohydramnios?
Premature rupture of membranes
A 22-week ultrasound examination reveals severe polyhydramnios. Which of the following would not typically be associated with polyhydramnios?
Posterior urethral valves
Which of the following should be first suspected in the presence of oligohydramnios?
True Potter's syndrome is associated with all of the following except:
Which of the following includes sonographic findings of a short or absent umbilical cord, limb defects, and scoliosis?
Limb-body wall complex
Which of the following would not be a sonographic finding consistent with unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney disease?
Compensatory hypertophy of the involved kidney
A cystic dilation of the distal ureter is:
Infantile polycystic kidney disease is also referred to as:
Autisomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease is thought to be caused by:
Early urinary obstruction
A sonographic examination of a 20-week fetus is highly suspicious for bilateral renal agenesis. Sonographically, the adrenal glands appear flattened and the renal area is not seen well secondary to anhydramnios. What other sonographic finding would confirm this diagnosis?
Abscent renal arteries
Upon sonographic examination of a 30-week fetus, you discover evidence of fetal long bone fractures. Based on the sonographic findings, which of the following is most likely?
Webbed toes is an example of:
What is the most likely cause of hydronephrosis affecting only one fetal kidney?
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
Phocomelia is defined as:
Abscent long bones with the hand and feet ariises from the shoulder and hips
The term hypospadius denotes:
Abnormal ventral curvature of the penis
The most common abnormal findings on a prenatal sonogram are those of the:
A condition in which the renal system fails to develop is called:
Hypotonic abdominal wall muscles, cryptorchidism and mega ureters are characteristic of which of the following?
Higher maternal alpha feto-protein levels are associated with which of the following?
A dilated bladder with a "keyhole" appearance is most likely:
Posterior urethral valve obstruction
Which of the following are true about pseudoascites?
Does not change position with fetal movement
A hypoechoic band that parallels the anterior abdominal wall which mimics free fluid
It does not outline organs
The term "thanatophoric" means:
A 25-year-old gravid woman presents to the ultrasound department for a follow-up sonographic examination. In the prior report, you find that the fetus suffers from rhizomelia of the lower extremities. Rhizomelia relates to the:
Shortening of the proximal segment of a limb
The group of abnormalities associated with the entrapment of fetal parts in the amnion, often resulting in fetal amputations or facial clefting is referred to as:
Amniotic band syndrome
Which of the following would be most likely associated with caudal regression syndrome?
A urinary obstruction at the level of the uterterovesicular junction will result in the enlargement of what structures?
Ureter, renal pelvis, & renal calices
All of the following are abdominal wall defects. Which one is MOST likely not to be compatible with life?
Limb/body wall complex
The most common site of hydronephrosis in the neonate is the:
A gravid 25-year-old patient presents to the ultrasound department for a19-week sonographic examination with an indication of "small for dates". The sonographic findings include bilateral, smooth-walled, noncommunicating cysts of varying sizes located within the renal fossae, absent urinary bladder, and severe oligohydramnios. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Which of the following would be most likely associated with thanatophoric dysplasia?
Telephone receiver bones
Which of the following statements is true concerning the relationship between fetal gender, bilateral fetal hydronephrosis, and megacystis?
PUV can result in a bilateral hydranephrosis and megacystic bladder and are common cause of bladder outlet obstructions in male fetus
Which of the following would be most likely associated with sirenomelia?
Bilateral renal agenesis
The most likely cause of bilateral hydronephrosis in the fetus is:
Bladder outlet obstruction
Sonographic findings in posterior urethral valve obstruction include all except which of the following?
Thinning of the bladder wall
Sirenomelia is associated with:
Lower extremity fusion
When the fetal kidneys appear enlarged and echogenic, the sonographer should suspect:
Infantile polycystic disease
Which of the following anomalies is associated with micromelia and a "hitchhiker thumb?"
Shortening of the middle portion of the extremity is termed:
All except which of the following are characteristics of thanatophoric dysplasia?
Which of the following is/are true about sonography of skeletal dysplasias?
May not be severe enough to be detected
May not manifest until late second trimester
Not always visualized on Ultrasound
Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis when multiple fractures and hypomineralization of the calvarium are identified?
The most common characteristic of multicystic dysplastic kidney disease is:
Multiple noncommunicating cysts of variable size
Which of the following is the most common nonlethal skeletal dysplasia?
--------------------------------Is a condition that causes many joints to be stiff and crooked at birth.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
The condition in which the foot is inverted and rotated medially is referred to as:
A group of lethal skeletal dysplasias characterized by bowing of the long bones is:
Sonographic features of a small thorax, rhizomelia, renal dysplasia, and polydactyly is associated with:
A diagnosis of talipes may be made with:
Persistent abnormal inversion of the foot perpendicular to the lower leg
An inherited disorder that causes malformations of bones of the skull, face, and arms and legs that may demonstrate "flipper-like" appendages is:
The specific feature for achondroplasia is?
The most common lethal skeletal dysplasia is:
Which classification of osteogenesis imperfecta is considered severe?
A rare condition characterized by pheocomelia and facial anomalies is:
Which of the following is not true about talipes?
Hydramnios is identifies
The term used to describe abnormal growth and density of cartilage and bone is:
Webbing across the joint and multiple contractures are sonographic findings of:
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
Which of the following is not ultrasound finding for diagnosing Beckwith-Wiedmann Syndrome?
Which organ can mimic the fetal kidneys on ultrasound?
The adrenal glands
A defect in the lower abdominal wall and anterior wall of the urinary bladder is which one of the following?
If a low omphalocele is found in the fetus, other anomalies may include all of the following except:
Which of the following is not true of infantile polycystic disease?
Which of the following is associated with Eagle- Barrett syndrome?
The most common renal abnormality in an unborn fetus is:
Which of the following statements best describes the skeletal abnormality known as osteogenesis imperfecta?
The bones are abnormally fragile due to hypomineralization of the skeleton
If the renal fossa is empty, the area to search for an ectopic kidney is?
The lower pelvis area
The cranial defect commonly seen in limb- body wall complex is
Herniation of the abdominal contents which are contained in a sac composed of liver describes what anomaly?
While scanning a 22wk fetus, you identify normal long bones in the lower extremities but the feet are very small with shortened tarsals and metatarsals. Which of the terms describes this isolated finding?
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