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Chapter 5 - Revel Pearson - Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection
Terms in this set (28)
genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
Viruses that cause abnormal growths in epithelial cells. There are over 100 types. A few (types 6 and 11) cause genital warts, while others (types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) can lead to cancer of the cervix.
What is the most common STI in the USA?
How many americans have HPV?
79 million Americans are infected with HPV and that there are 14 million new cases every year
What are the chances of getting HPV?
the lifetime probability of acquiring HPV for those who have had at least one opposite-sex partner is 84.6% for women and 91.3% for men
Does it go away on it's own?
The large majority of infections (about 90%) disappear on their own within 2 years (Crow, 2012). However, there are very serious consequences in cases that persist.
three categories of HPV
1. rare skin condition (epidermodysplasia verruciformis) that appears as reddish plaques,
2. those that cause nongenital warts (including common, plantar, and flat warts)
3. those that cause warts in the genital and anal area (although these can also cause problems in the mouth, pharynx, and larynx). There are about 25 different human papillomaviruses that can cause anogenital warts but 90% of genital warts are caused by HPV types 6 and 11
Genital (venereal) warts
Genital (venereal) warts
Warts in the genital and anal regions caused by human papillomaviruses (mainly types 6 and 11). The warts are cauliflower-like growths.
When do symptoms of Genital (venereal) warts appear?
3 weeks to 8 months.
symptoms of Genital (venereal) warts
itching, irritation, or bleeding.
where do genital warts appear?
warts generally appear on the penis, scrotum, and/or anus, but they can also grow within the urethra. In women, the warts can appear on the cervix and walls of the vagina as well as the vulva and anus
can genital warts be passed to a baby?
treatment of genital warts
For individuals who have anogenital warts, various treatments are available, but none is ideal for all patients (Marrazzo & Cates, 2011). If the warts are small and you wish to treat yourself, you can apply a solution of podophyilox, imiquimod, or sinecatechin ointment, which causes them to dry up. Doctors can remove larger warts by liquid nitrogen or minor surgery. Internal warts are often removed by laser surgery. However, none of these methods attacks the virus directly, so recurrences of the warts are common (
What types of cancer are increased in women who have HPV
cervical and/or vulvar cancer.
nearly all women with cervical cancer are found to have HPV infections.
latency period betwen infection with HPV and detection of cancer?
5 to 25 years
what kinds of HPV are found in cervical cancer?
15 kinds of human papillomaviruses are found in cervical cancers, most commonly HPV 16 and 18 (70% of cases), 31, 33, and 45.
can HPV cause other cancer?
HPV is also a leading cause of vaginal, penile, anal and rectal, and mouth and throat cancers
facts about oral HPV
oral HPV infection now leads smoking and alcohol as the leading cause of mouth/throat cancer (Scudellari, 2013). About 10.1% of American men and 3.6% of American women now have oral HPV infections
Only women with _______ will develop cervical cancer—about 12,990 a year in the United States, resulting in over 4,100 deaths
persistent infections HPV
Worldwide, there are ----new cases each year and over 250,000 deaths.
______ and ______ are an essential part of female health care.
A regular pelvic exam and Pap smear are an essential part of female health care.
Women who test positive for HPV should have Pap smears at least every ___ months
for HPV what is the treatment?
HPV infections of the cervix, cryotherapy (freezing) is the preferred therapy.
what is the best way to treat HPV considering most women are asymptomatic?
what vaccines are there for HPV
Gardasil protects against HPV types 16 and 18 (accounting for 70% of cervical cancers) and 6 and 11 (accounting for 90% of genital warts). A newer vaccine, Gardasil 9, protects against these four types and five others, making it 90% effective against cervical cancer (Petrosky et al., 2015). The vaccines work for both women and men and protect against anal and oral cancer as well. Three injections are required for full protective vaccination. The vaccines also reduce the risk of recurrent problems in women who already have had cervical HPV-caused disease
What does the CDC adivise in regards to HPV vaccines?
all girls and boys be routinely vaccinated at ages 11 or 12 (and as early as age 9) and that all others up through age 26 be vaccinated as well.
has the vaccine worked?
Australia began a national vaccination program in 2007, and by 2011 genital warts had nearly disappeared in teenaged girls
In the United States, as of 2013, only a little more than half of girls aged 13 to 17 and only about one third of boys had received at least one of the three injections (see Rubin, 2015). Even with this modest vaccination rate, the number of new diagnoses of genital warts has dramatically declined
__________ is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States.
Genital human papillomavirus
Over __________ different types of human papillomaviruses have been identified.
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