Cell Division Test
Terms in this set (37)
Period of cell division in which centromeres are pulled apart, chromatids seperate, and they begin to move towards opposite ends of the cell
Period of cell division in which chromosomes spead out, nuclear envelope reforms, spindle breaks apart, and nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter cell
Period of cell division in which centromeres line up across the center of the cell, spindle fibers connect to the centromere of each cromosome to the two poles of the spindle
Period of cell division where duplicated chromosomes condense and become visible, centrioles move to opposite sides of nucleus and help organize spindle, spindle forms and DNA strands attach at the centromere, nucleolus disappears and the nuclear envelope breaks down
The longest stage of the cell cycle in which the cell grows between cell divisions. G1, S, G2 phases.
cells increase in size and make new proteins and organelles
new DNA is synthesized when the chromosomes are replicated
organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced
A fanlike microtubule structure that helps seperate the chromatids. It attaches to the centrioles and is a thin thread that pulls the chromatids to opposite cell poles.
tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells that help organize the spindle
the area where each pair of chromatids is joined
each strand of a duplicated chromosome (while in division)
The division of the cytoplasm in which one cell splits into two. Usually occurs simultaneously with telophase in mitosis. In an animal cell the cell membrane is drawn in until the cytoplasm is pinched (a cleavage furrow is formed) and each part contains its own nucleus and organelles. In a plant cell a cell plate is formed between the divided nuclei that develops into cell membranes. A cell wall them forms between the two new membranes.
Molecule made up of DNA and proteins. Two together form a chromosome (while not dividing)
DNA molecule made up of chromatin/cromatids. Carries genetic information from generation to generation.
new cells produced by cell division
Process of cell division that prokaryotic cells go through. Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
identical halves of a duplicated parent chromosome; the halves are held together by a centromere
sister chromatid or homologous chromosomes don't seperate during either anaphase 1 or 2. Results in gametes with extra or missing chromosomes
two corresponding chromosomes that code for the same traits as itself; traits are same, but actual genes may be different
A cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes. (Two sets. One from mom one from dad)
A cell containing only a single set of chromosomes, and therefore a single set of genes. (One set. Includes gametes of sexually reproducing organisms)
Process during Prophase 1 of meiosis by which the chromatids of the homologous chromosomes cross over one another. The crossed sections of the chromatids are exchanged. Produces new combinations of alleles in the cell.
Structure formed in Prophase 1 of meiosis. It contains four paired homologous chromosomes.
Sex cell; sperm or egg, haploid reproductive cells produced by meiosis 2
a chromosomal abnormality in a diploid cell in which one chromosome of one pair is missing from the normal diploid number as a result of nondisjunction during meiosis
A genetic condition of having three chromosomes instead of two. The conidtion causes various birth defects. It is an abnormality characterized by the presence of an additional chromosome to the normal diploid number.
diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg cell (fusion of male and female gametes).
Eukaryotic, Asexual form of cell reproduction/division. Division of the nucleus. It has four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. The product of the division is a genetically identical daughter cell.
Form of sexual reproduction used by eukaryotic sex cells. After two divisions, four genetically unique daughter cells are produced and are haploid (one half original number of chromosomes) Order of two division sectors: Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telophase 1, Cytokenesis; Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2, Cytokenesis
The chromosomes pair up to form a tetrad (containing four chromosomes). The tetrads then undergo crossing-over.
A spindle forms and attaches to each tetrad. Paired homologous chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.
Spindle fibers pull each homologous chromosome pair toward opposite ends of the cell. The seperated chromosomes then cluster at opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase 1 and 2
A nuclear membrane forms around each cluster of chromosomes
Chromosomes consisting of two chromatids beome visible.
Chromosomes line up at the centromeres in the center of each cell.
The paired chromosomes seperate and move to opposite ends of the cell.