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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
A.P. European History - Chapter 15 Terms
Terms in this set (50)
(1466-1536) A Dutch scholar and famous Christian humanist who dominated early-sixteenth-century Europe. Also known as the Prince of Humanism, he was on intimate terms with kings and popes, studied Greek and Latin Classics, and believed that individuals could reform themselves only through education. His ideal society was a unified, peaceful Christendom in which charity and good works, not empty ceremonies would mark true religion in which learning and piety would dispel the darkness of ignorance He was ordained in priesthood but devoted life to study of classics because he wanted to get a deeper understanding of the Bible. His most famous works were Praise of Folly & Handbook of the Christian Knight, which both satirized the church and explained how to lead a moral but active life. He published annotated edition of New Testament in Greek which revealed errors in the church's accepted version of Bible. He saw religion and learning as bound together. While he was a critic of abuses by church, he was not a Protestant. He believed thought institution could reform itself from within, opposed Luther's reformation and believed he was even more doctrinaire and intolerant than the church. He was deeply disturbed by the religious upheavals unleashed in the 1520s and 1530s before his death.
(1478-1535) A close friend of Erasmus and a very well-known English humanist who wrote a conservative criticism of contemporary society called Utopia. He believed that politics, property, and war fueled human misery. Because he studied law, he had legal talents that served him well in government. He was a member of Parliament, later a royal ambassador, and then a lord chancellor (a chief official in government). He became one of Henry VIII's most trusted diplomats, but his repudiation of the Act of Supremacy (which made the king of England head of the English church in place of the pope) and his refusal to recognize the Henry VIII (the King of England at the time) as the supreme ruler of the Church of England and Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn led to his execution
A reformer who protested against the abuses of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century, or a member of a specific church descended from those that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church during the sixteenth century. The former definition got its name since the people of this term rebelled against imperial authorities. This term was started by Martin Luther, and were originally called Evangelicals.
These were sold as an alternative to confession and penance, which were uncomfortable and inconvenient. This was a "portion of the treasury of good works of Christians throughout the ages." Thus, a person could buy the purity or good deeds of another, and thus spend less time in both purgatory and confession. They could be purchased on special occasions or at pilgrimage sites, or could be earned by performing religious tasks: going on pilgrimage, attending Mass, or doing holy works. They were started by Pope Leo X to help fund the construction of his death tomb (St. Peter's Basilica) in Rome, which showed that he was more interested in making money than saving Christian souls. Johann Tetzel was an eminent salesman of this term; he traveled to the Holy Roman Empire and had great success selling these certificates.
Intellectuals, like Thomas More and Desiderius Erasmus, in the late 15th and early 16th centuries who dreamed beautiful visions for a better future and sought to realize the ethical ideals of the classical world and the Scriptures, dreamed of ideal societies based on piece and morality, and envisioned a better world based on education. They criticized the church's leaders and clergy for failing to provide the authority the people sought. What they found horrifying was that more extreme voices of dissent, like Martin Luther, had not used their methodology to find ways to better the Catholic Church, but to justify why the church had strayed from the will of God.
In Praise of Folly
A piece that was written by Desiderius Erasmus and dedicated to Thomas More. It praised self-deception, madness, and moves and satirized the examination of the pious but superstitious abuses of Catholic doctrine and corrupt practices that were held dear in parts of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the most notable works of the Renaissance and one of the catalysts of the Protestant Reformation.This satire had special meaning for a Renaissance audience, especially in its criticisms of specific religious sects and practices, but it appeals to modern readers in its satire of universal human foibles and its scathing indictment of war. It also says that modesty, humility, and poverty represented the true Christian virtues in a world that worshiped pomposity, power, and wealth. It also says that the wise appeared foolish because their wisdom and values were not of this world.
A perfect world, or paradise. Thomas More wrote a this book, which describes an imaginary land and socially criticized England, which was spurred by the encountering of new cultures in the New World. This book's title is an oxymoron: it means both "no place" and "best place" in Greek, and was named that because it is describing the opposite of England at the time. In this book, everyone worked the land for two years, and since the people in this book enjoyed public schools, communal kitchens, hospitals, and nurseries, there was no need for money or private property, and crime nor war exists in this book because the people in the book loathed it. The idea explored was that communal living and equality, without greed for gold, silver or personal gain, would bring universal happiness.
(1483-1546) A Catholic monk and professor of theology who noticed big differences between scripture and Church practices. Although his father wanted him to study law, he became a monk and lived in terror of God's justice in spite of his frequent confessions and penance. He brought the public's attention to the hypocrisy he saw among high church officials, first by writing the 95 Theses, which questioned indulgence peddling and the purchase of church offices, and then by writing many other written works. His supporters were mostly young, educated Christian humanists, German princes, city officials, professors, priests, ordinary men and women living in cities, and clerics, and he believed that faith, not good works, saves sinners from damnation, distinguished between true Gospel teaching, and invented church doctrines. German princes supported and protected him, because freedom from the Catholic Church would mean freedom from the taxes, tax exemptions, and power the Church held over them. Pope Leo X and Charles V ordered him to recant at the Diet at Worms, but he refused.
(1484-1531) The chief preacher of the Swiss city of Zurich and leader of Swiss Reformation. He attended a university, became a priest, served as an army chaplain, and extended the Reformation in Germany, although he was an independent of Martin Luther. He was deeply influenced by Erasmus, and thus adopted his vision of social renewal through education. He attacked the corruption among the church hierarchy and the church rituals of fasting and the clergy not being able to marry, and agreed to disagree with Luther about the Eucharist--Luther believed that Christ was both truly and symbolically present in the Eucharist, but he thought that the Eucharist was simply a ceremony symbolizing Christ's union with believers. Also, unlike what Martin Luther believed, he said that there isn't any difference between the ideal citizen and the perfect Christian. He was found wounded by the Lutherans on the battlefield of the Swiss Civil War. They cut him up into little pieces, burned them and scattered his ashes over the land. Luther said he got what he deserved. Like John Calvin, he did not tolerate dissenters, and imposed death sentences on Anabaptists because they refused to bear arms and swear oaths of allegiance.
(1509-1564), This brilliant French intellectual theologian was the leading French Protestant Reformer and very important to the second generation of the Christian Reformation. He earned a law degree, but he didn't work for the government, and instead, like Martin Luther, intensely studied theology. He joined forces with Guillaume Farel, Geneva's former bishop who threatened him with God's curse if he did not stay and labor at Geneva, and together they brought the reform party to Geneva, which had its supporters triumphed over the old Genevan families, who were unfairly ruled by the strict moral regulations of the Holy Roman Empire clergy. He believed that if God was almighty and humans cannot earn their salvation by good works, then no Christian can be certain of salvation. His challenge to the Catholic church deeply influenced religion in North America and Protestantism in Europe, including the German-speaking lands of central Europe, England, The Netherlands, Scotland, the Low Countries, France, Poland, and eastern Europe. The form of Protestantism that was named after him has had a great impact on the development of the modern world, and included the Huguenots. One thing he specifically believed in was predestination: the belief that God knows before a person is born whether they are going to heaven or hell. He also didn't tolerate dissenters.
'By faith alone"
It was one of the central features of the Reform movement, and was based on the teachings of Martin Luther. It means that Christians only needed to have a faith in God will give you salvation since each Christian could appeal directly to God for salvation, not the priests who charge you for indulgences or "good works."
"Priesthood of all believers"
It was one of the central features of the Reform movement, and was based on the teachings of Martin Luther. It said that as long as Christians believed in God, all Christians had equal connections with God and that clergymen were no longer needed to provide the link between man and God, the Bible provided all the teachings necessary for Christian living, and that people can interpret the Bible however they want. Essentially, the movement presented the idea that all believers were their own priests (a link between god and man), and that the opinion of the priest should not dictate what the laypeople should believe in.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin's work on Protestant systematic theology. The book was written as an introductory textbook on the Protestant faith for those with some learning already and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty. Some of the beliefs mentioned in the book are the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of humankind, its condemnation under the judgement of God in a doctrine of predestination, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation. Using scriptural evidence to back up this theory, it also says that humans are born as slaves to sin and that we are at the mercy of divine judgement and that God has preselected who he will save uses
This was a traditional doctrine, which was developed by John Calvin, that said that God has already chosen who will be saved (go to heaven) and who is damned (go to hell) before the creation of the world, which means that a person's actions in his life doesn't affect whether he goes to heaven or hell. This belief said that those who are already chosen for salvation must lead, and those who are damned must also be governed. This put a special emphasis on discipline when Calvin lead the reformation in Geneva.
The name for the people who are the ones who God only knows and has chosen to save in predestination. This belief demands rigorous discipline: the knowledge that only the people belonging to this term, a small group of people, would be saved should guide the actions of the godly in an uncertain world. This is a belief of the Calvinism religion and that only these people can be saved and ordinary people cannot earn salvation. This belief was started by John Calvin in 1536 in France when he published "Institutes of the Christian Religion" and is still the belief of Calvinists today.
A group of Protestants that agreed with Luther on important doctrines like "Justification by Faith" and opposition to Rome. They only followed the practices directly commanded in Scripture and not Roman Catholic practices like what Luther and the "Lutherans" did. Their services were much plainer and simpler than "Lutheran" services.
(1517) A list of arguments against the Catholic Church and indulgences that was written by Martin Luther. It was originally written in Latin, and it questioned indulgence peddling and the purchase of church offices. Martin Luther posted on the door of Wittenberg's All Saints Church. Among other things, he argued that indulgences had no basis in the Bible, that the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could only be saved through faith (the "by faith alone" belief). Once it became public, it unleashed a sudden and violent outpouring of pent-up resentment and frustration among the laypeople.
Diet of Worms
The formal assembly that was ruled by the powerful Holy Roman Emperor, which was a young Charles V at the time. This assembly was in a series of meetings at the Germain city of Worms in 1521 at which Martin Luther was ordered to recant his ninety-five theses because people were beginning to follow Martin Luther's teachings, which angered the church. Luther refused, and shocked Germans by declaring his admiration for the Jan Hus, a Czech heretic (a person that holds religious opinions that go against the right teachings of the church). Charles V issued an official proclamation condemning the 95 Thesis, declared Martin Luther an outlaw although he was protected by the Elector (or Prince) of Saxony (one of the seven electors that choose the Holy Roman Emperor), Frederick the Wise, and other German princes. At Fredrick the Wise's castle, Martin Luther translated the Bible into German and wrote hymes.
Wittenberg, Holy Roman Empire
A city in Eastern Germany were Martin Luther studied theology, and the place where he posted the 95 Thesis, to challenge key beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church, and also where Johann Tetzel sold indulgences to the city's citizens. It is the capital of the German region of Saxony.
A city where Calvinism became the official religion, and the new center of the Reformation. Its government was a theocracy (a disciplined Christian republic). John Calvin and Guillaume Farel traveled to this city and gained enough reform party supporters, who were mainly French refugees, to overrun the previous government there, which was led by old families from this city, who were unfairly ruled by the strict moral regulations of the Holy Roman Empire clergy. Now, great importance was put on religious living, citizens' lives were regulated strictly and certain actions could lead to severe punishments. The government that John Calvin and Guillaume Farel helped create in Geneva was based off of John Calvin's book, Institutes of the Christian Religion. As a result of Calvin's influence, this city became a single moral community, as reflected in its very low rate of extramarital births and crime in the sixteenth century. However, critics of these moral standards accused the city as being tyrannical.
An English translator and Protestant martyr. His translation of the Bible into English (which later formed the basis for the King James Version) aroused ecclesiastical opposition; he left England in 1524 and was burned at the stake in Antwerp as a heretic. After his death, the English government promoted an English Bible based on his translation of it since Henry VIII religiously broke with Rome and adopted the Reformation.
A paciest religious sect started in Zurich, Switzerland, in the 16th century that, true faith was based on reason and free will and that people must knowingly select the Christian faith through rebaptism as adults, and thus the people who belonged to this religion were rebaptized. These men and women, who were mostly artisans from the middle and lower classes, attempted to re-create the perfect Christian community on earth, rejected the authority of the state and the courts, abolished private property, and believed themselves to be true Christians who lived according to the standards established in the Bible. The movement gained most of its support from artisans and the middle and lower classes, who were attracted by its simple message of peace and salvation. They were persecuted by both Catholic and Protestant authorities, and Zurich's magistrates, angered at the pacifist sect's refusal to bear arms, ordered that hundreds of them be put to death, thereby making them the Reformation's first martyrs of conscience. This religion quickly spread from Zurich to many cities in southern Germany, even though the Holy Roman Empire didn't approve of the religion, and in northwestern Europe.
The Latin edition of the Bible translated from Hebrew and Greek mainly by St. Jerome at the end of the 4th century. When it was revised for its errors of translation from the Greek and Hebrew in 1592, it was adopted as the official text for the Roman Catholic Church. Martin Luther translated Erasmus's Greek New Testament into German, which became the first full vernacular translation in that language. Luther's German translation of the Old Testament, which had a very good reputation, became a treasure for by many Christians; Luther's Bible occupied a central place in a Christian family's history. The French humanist Jacques Lefere d'Etaples translated the New Testament of edition of this Bible into French; the free distribution of this Bible to the poor represented an early attempt to reform the French church without breaking with Rome.
Peasant's War (1525)
A widespread rural uprising in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe (1524-1536) that threatened the entire social order. It involved 300,000 peasants, who consisted of peasants, town-dwellers, and nobles, and about 100,000 people were killed. The reason why this war happened was because they were sick of paying taxes to their lord and the Catholic church. The peasants plundered monasteries, refused to pay church taxes, and demanded village autonomy, the abolition of serfdom, and the right to appoint their own pastors. It resulted in splitting the reform movement, the establishment of Serfdom, the small income, and random punishment. It also resulted in the reduction of socage with appropriate compensation for conducted ones, free use of woods and ponds for hunting, and the right for every community to elect their own priests. Martin Luther had tried to mediate this conflict initially, criticizing the princes for their brutality toward the peasants but also warning the rebels against mixing religion and social protest. He considered mixing religion and politics, "the devil's work," to be the greatest danger to the Reformation. Although the rebels of this conflict pursued anti-Roman Catholic beliefs, Martin Luther called on the princes to restore the divinely ordained social order and slaughter the radical rebels.
(1478-1529) He is most famous for being the author of The Courtier, which was about education and manners and had a great influence. He was a servant of the duke of Urbino and the pope and a smooth diplomat. He tried to represent court culture as a combination of military virtues and literary and artistic cultivation. He represents that belief in The Courtier.
(1493-1519) The Holy Roman Emperor that attempted to centralize the administration by creating new institutions common to the entire empire, but he was really only successful in marriage alliances since German princes stopped his attempts of centralizing the Holy Roman Empire. He was a visionary who dreamed of restoring Christian chivalry and even toyed with the idea of ruling as pope and emperor. He married Mary (daughter of Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy). This gained his family Franche-Comte' in east-central France Luxemburg, and a large part of the Low countries. This made their dynasty an international power and made themselves great enemies of the French Monarchy. Much was expected of him. Paintings of him showed him with the characteristics of Reason, Nobility and power: the theme of idealism through art. In one painting of him, his carriage positioned the figures of Justice, Temperance, Prudence, and Fortitude at a level above the seated emperor. He also granted the Fugger family numerous mining and minting concessions since Jokob Fugger was his personal banker.
(1500-1556) The Holy Roman Emperor, who embodied the ideal Christian knight, that called for the Diet of Worms. He was hailed as the most powerful ruler in all of Europe, the harbinger of peace, the protector of justice, and the foe of the infidel Turks. He was the son of P-Hot (Phillip I) and J-Mad (Joanna the Mad). He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation. He succeeded his grandfather and became the Holy Roman Emperor. He was assisted by both a long tradition of Habsburg imperial rule and a massive Fugger campaign chest, which secured the votes of the seven electors. He was in part elected by the electors because he agreed to a revival of the Imperial Supreme Court and the Council of Regency and promised to consult with a diet of the empire on all major domestic and foreign affairs that affected the empire. The Venetian painter Titan glorified him as a very proud and majestic in a very idealist way, which fits into the theme of idealism in sixteenth-century art. During the Franco-Spanish struggle, he let the Ottoman Empire, who were fighting against the Holy Roman Empire, use the city of Nice, on the southern coast of France, as a temporary military fort. With the help of the Catholics, Spainards, and the papal states, he defeated the Schmalkaldic League in the Schmalkaldic war and shortly after, established the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. He resigned the throne and left the Netherlands, Burgundy, and Spanish lands to his son, Philip II, and his Australian lands and the HRE title to his brother, Ferdinand. He did this because of he was exhausted by decades of war and the disunity of Europe since the Lutheran church created a break in Christianity in Europe.
(1475-1564) The artist (he was a sculptor, painter, and architect) who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling. He matured his multiple talents for the Medici family, but after the family was overthrown, he became Pope Julius II's favorite artist. The Renaissance genius painted the Sistine Chapel and worked on a never-finished tomb and sculpture for the pope. He was also asked by Pope Paul III to design the palaces in Rome, one of which was St. Peter's Basilica. The artist's work signified the transition from the Renaissance time period to the age of religious conflicts, and his artistic talents served to glorify a papacy under attack.
The largest financing (banking) enterprise, beginning with Jakob ___ (this term) (who became the personal banker to Charles V's grandfather, Maximilian I), in sixteenth-century Europe. They and their associates built an international financial empire, which was very successful and reaped lots of profits, that helped make kings. They were a family of prominent bankers and merchants in the imperial city of Augsberg, modern-day Germany. They were members of the mercantile patriciate in Augsberg and were venture capitalists. They gained great status through wealth, and dominance similar to that of the Medici family. They both were allies of the Habsburgs, which was profitable for the respective families. For thirty years, the consortium of German and Italian bankers that this family set up to secure the election of Charles V as the Holy Roman Emperor in alliance with the Holy Roman Empire (Europe's largest empire at the time) tightened.
Henry II (France)
(1547-1559) Francis I of France's successor to the throne. He succeeded in maintaining a balance of power between Catholics and Huguenots and between hostile noble groups. However, after his death, he could no longer hold together this fragile realm. As a result, France plunged into decades of religious wars, whose barbarity was unmatched from anywhere else in Europe.
(1509-1547) A was a robust, ambitious, and well-educated man in the Tudor family who was the notorious King of England that had six wives. For the first eighteen years of his reign, he firmly opposed the Reformation, and thus suppressed Protestantism by executing its leaders. This king of England founded the Anglican Church and split from the Roman Catholic Church. He did so for personal and political reasons: both to gain the money and power the Church was taking from him (in taxes, tax exemptions, etc) and so that he could divorce his first wife. Because he had six wives and two of his daughters became queens of England (Elizabeth I and Mary Tudor), there has been a lot of historical focus on his personal life. He also received the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for a treatise he wrote against Luther.
Catherine of Aragon
(1485-1536) Henry VIII's first wife. She was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and the aunt of Charles V. During her eighteen-year marraige to Henry VII, she gave birth to Princess Mary (a.k.a. Mary Tudor). Because she was the widow of Henry VIII's older dead brother, Arthur, she had to annul her marriage with Arthur with Pope Julius II so that she could marry Henry VIII. Then, Henry VIII tried to annul his unfulfilled marriage with her with Pope Clement VII, but the pope didn't allow it. Henry VIII was finally able to annul his marriage to her when he started his own church, the Church of England (a.k.a. the Anglican Church), and since he was the head of that church, he didn't need to listen to the pope and instead, played by his own religious rules.
(c. 1501-1536) Henry VIII's second wife. Henry VIII was in love with her, and she was a lady of the court as a well as a strong supporter of the Reformation. She gave birth to Queen Elizabeth I , who later took the English throne after her half sister, Mary I and restored Protestantism back into England, but produced no sons. Because Henry VIII was suspicious of her committing adultery, a crime that is defined as treason, Henry VIII beheaded her.
(1485-1540) One of Henry VIII's loyal Protestant servants who was appointed as a chancellor by Henry VIII because he wanted to successfully annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon by splitting the religious associations of England with the Roman Catholic Church in Rome. He was executed by Henry VIII after Henry VIII lost favor with him.
(1489-1556) One of Henry VIII's loyal Protestant servants who was appointed by Henry VIII as the archbishop of Canterbury because he wanted to successfully annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon by splitting the religious associations of England with the Roman Catholic Church in Rome.
(1547-1553) Sole male heir to Henry VIII. He was raised largely by Calvinist uncle. But when he took power following his Father's death in 1547, he became king with the Uncle as a regent, his uncle did much to change the Church of England over to Calvinist Ideology. The young king furthered the Reformation by welcoming prominent religious refugees from Europe. He died probably of tuberculosis chest in 1553 at age 16, ending the Tudor family being the ruling royal family of England.
(1553-1558) Also known as "Bloody Mary," she was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. When she took the throne in 1553 right after the premature death of Edward VI, she restored Catholicism back to England and persecuted hundreds of English Protestants. Shortly after her death, her half-sister, Elizabeth I, took the English thrown, executed Catholic missionaries, and supported the Anglican Church by restoring Protestantism back into England.
(1514-1572) The most prominent Protestant Scottish reformer in Scotland. He spent many of his early years in exile in England and in continental Europe. Mary of Guise (Mary I's mother), who later became his greatest enemy, distracted him from God's cause. This Scottish theologian was dead-set against women holding positions of power, saying that this went against God, justice, and nature. He wrote The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women in 1558, which was a diatribe against both Mary Tudor of England and Mary of Guise and reflected common and traditional views that women were inferior to men and would overthrow good order if they took the throne. In the sixteenth century, however, there were many powerful and successful female rulers, including Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Hungary, Margarer of Parma, Jeanne d'Albret of Navarre, Mary Queen of Scots, and Catherine de Medicis.
Mary Stuart/Queen of Scots
(1542-1567) A Scottish Catholic queen who fled Scotland and went to England during its Reformation and later attempted to organize the assassination of Elizabeth I; she was beheaded. She was the daughter of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. She became queen when she was 6 years old. She married dauphin (the eldest son of a king of France) Francis, the king of France and ruled over France for one year until Francis died in 1560. Then she married Lord Darnley. She had a plan to assassinate her cousin, Elizabeth to take the throne of England. She was always seen as a threat but once she went too far, Elizabeth had her imprisoned and eventually beheaded. After she escaped Scotland and fled to England, Mary's infant son, James, was made Queen of Scots.
A book by Baldassare Castiglionne which was about education and manners and had a great influence. In the books, different characters debate the qualities of an ideal man. It describes the ideal Renaissance man (the qualities of a true gentleman), who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, is well educated in many academic subjects, carries himself with nobility in dignity and nobility when he talks to his prince and lady, is an accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, has a modest but confident personal behavior, and of course, sports the finest, most luxurious threads.
What Protestants were called in France. They were a groups of French Protestants that lived from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into France between 1520 and 1523, and the principles were accepted by many members of the nobility, the intellectual classes, and the middle class. At first the new religious group was royally protected, but toward the end of the reign of King Francis I they were persecuted. Nevertheless, they continued to grow.
Defender of the Faith
A title that Leo X bestowed on Henry VIII and later withdrew. The English Parliament restored the title and it has been used by English sovereigns ever since the reign of Henry VIII.
The national, Protestant church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs) that was established by Henry VIII with himself as the head. Henry VIII established this church so that England can religiously break ties with the Roman Catholic Church in Rome so that Henry VIII could officially annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon and officially marry Anne Boleyn. After Henry VIII's death, it became increasingly Protestant, but it still retained many traditional Catholic doctrines and rituals. However, the principle of royal supremacy over religious matters remained a lasting feature of Henry VIII's reforms. The church has its see in Canterbury and the Sovereign as its temporal head.
A league of Protestant princes formed in 1531, which included most of the imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire and were the chief source of the empire's wealth. It was headed by the elector of Saxony (the most powerful prince-ruled region of the Holy Roman Empire) and Philip of Hesse (both of them were the two leading Protestant princes). It was a religious and political alliance against Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)'s bishops and few remaining Catholic princes. Later, Charles V convened an Imperial Diet at Regensburg, HRE to patch up the theological differences between Protestants and Catholics, but this plan back lashed and only created more conflicts. Because he wanted to crush this league very badly, Charles V secured French neutrality and papal support. He forced princes to choose between Lutheranism and other forms of Protestantism (created polarization) and tied religion in with politics in the Holy Roman Empire. As things escalated into the wars named after this term, religion and politics became even more intertwined. During this war, the HRE crushed the Protestant princes.
Act of Supremacy (1529)
A law that the English Parliament passed that made Henry VIII the head of the Anglican church (a.k.a. the Church of England), made Princess Mary's (Catherine of Aragon's daughter) position in the English throne illegitimate, recognized Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn, and allowed the English crown to confiscate the properties of monasteries.
War of the Schmalkaldic League
A war between the remaining Catholic princes in the Holy Roman Empire, Charles V, and the papal states versus the many Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire. Charles V restored Catholic elites and suppressed the Reformation during this war by using Spanish veterans and German allies to occupy the German imperial cities in the south. Charles V then defeats the Protestant prince league armies and captures the leading Lutheran princes. As a result, Charles V allowed the Catholics' right to worship in Protestant lands in the Holy Roman Empire while allowing Lutherans to keep their own rites, which is called the "Interim." The Protestant princes of the Holy Roman Empire were not so pleased with this "Interim," and they fought with the Catholic princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Many Protestant princes of the Holy Roman Empire went into exile.
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
The treaty that brought an end to religious warfare in Germany, formally accepted the division of Christianity in the HRE (the Protestant princes of the Holy Roman Empire), allowed German states the freedom to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism, accepted the secularization of church lands but "reserved" the remaining territories owned by the RCC, did not recognize the principle of religious toleration for individuals, and most importantly gave the right of each German ruler, whether he was Catholic or Lutheran, the sole right to determine the religion of his lands and subjects, but the prince's subjects did not have the right to choose their own religion. This peace treaty preserved a fragile peace in central Europe until 1618, but the exclusion of Calvinists from this peace treaty would be the catalyst for future conflict. Eventually, this peace treaty gradually disintegrated as the religious struggles in the HRE intensified.
Ignatius of Loyola
(1491-1556) The principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. Members of the order are called Jesuits. Because he was severely injured as a soldier defending a Spanish border fortress against French attack, he began recovering from the injury and read the lives of saints. Once he recovered, he abandoned his quest for military glory, and instead, served the church. He was loved by many people because of his austerity and piety and was very active in fighting the Protestant Reformation and promoting the subsequent Counter-Reformation
Society of Jesus/Jesuits
The most important religious order of Catholic Europe in the sixteenth century. This very successful Catholic organization, one of the new religious orders founded by the Catholic reform movement, were vigorous defenders of papal authority since they followed direct orders from the pope and only the pope, and began a vigorous campaign for the reclamation of souls and established an excellent system of secondary education for colleges. This organization was established to compete with the Protestant gymnasia, and hundreds of colleges established by this organization dotted Catholic Europe by the late sixteenth century and educated future generations of Catholic leaders. Missionaries from this religious order played a key role in the global Portuguese maritime empire and brought Roman Catholicism to Africans, Asians, and native Americans since they believed it was a divine favor of God for them to convert native populations to the RCC, even though the native population trying to be converted the the RCC didn't welcome it most of the time, although many people in China and Japan did willingly convert to the RCC. This religious order also restored the confidence of the faithful in their dedication and power of the Catholic church.
Council of Trent
As part of their belief to offer hopes of renewal, Catholic church leaders Pope Paul III and Charles V convened a general church committee at a town, that makes up this term, on the border between the HRE and Italy. This committee met on occasion for seventeen years before completing its work, which shaped the essential character of Catholicism until the 1960s. The committee reasserted the supremacy of church authority over religious worshipers and demanded that bishops to stay in their church districts and that seminaries are to be established in each church district to train priests. This committee also defined the beliefs and practices of their official church doctrine and religious sacraments and condemned Protestant beliefs: the bread of the Eucharist actually becomes Christ's body, all marriages must take place in churches and are to be registered by the parish clergy, they rejected the Protestant allowance for divorce, the sales of indulgences are to be limited, tightened discipline for clergy, emphasized need for ceremonies, and said the only way to salvation was through the church. This newly-defined doctrine unified what Catholics believed since now, everybody was taught the same thing. Now, people found comfort in ancient ceremonies of Catholicism after decades of being angered by the prior corruptions of the RCC. Also, now the Catholic church's focus was not to try to reunite the Protestants with the Catholics since this schism remained permanent, but instead to reduce disagreement within the RCC.
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