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Terms in this set (50)

(1500-1556) The Holy Roman Emperor, who embodied the ideal Christian knight, that called for the Diet of Worms. He was hailed as the most powerful ruler in all of Europe, the harbinger of peace, the protector of justice, and the foe of the infidel Turks. He was the son of P-Hot (Phillip I) and J-Mad (Joanna the Mad). He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation. He succeeded his grandfather and became the Holy Roman Emperor. He was assisted by both a long tradition of Habsburg imperial rule and a massive Fugger campaign chest, which secured the votes of the seven electors. He was in part elected by the electors because he agreed to a revival of the Imperial Supreme Court and the Council of Regency and promised to consult with a diet of the empire on all major domestic and foreign affairs that affected the empire. The Venetian painter Titan glorified him as a very proud and majestic in a very idealist way, which fits into the theme of idealism in sixteenth-century art. During the Franco-Spanish struggle, he let the Ottoman Empire, who were fighting against the Holy Roman Empire, use the city of Nice, on the southern coast of France, as a temporary military fort. With the help of the Catholics, Spainards, and the papal states, he defeated the Schmalkaldic League in the Schmalkaldic war and shortly after, established the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. He resigned the throne and left the Netherlands, Burgundy, and Spanish lands to his son, Philip II, and his Australian lands and the HRE title to his brother, Ferdinand. He did this because of he was exhausted by decades of war and the disunity of Europe since the Lutheran church created a break in Christianity in Europe.
As part of their belief to offer hopes of renewal, Catholic church leaders Pope Paul III and Charles V convened a general church committee at a town, that makes up this term, on the border between the HRE and Italy. This committee met on occasion for seventeen years before completing its work, which shaped the essential character of Catholicism until the 1960s. The committee reasserted the supremacy of church authority over religious worshipers and demanded that bishops to stay in their church districts and that seminaries are to be established in each church district to train priests. This committee also defined the beliefs and practices of their official church doctrine and religious sacraments and condemned Protestant beliefs: the bread of the Eucharist actually becomes Christ's body, all marriages must take place in churches and are to be registered by the parish clergy, they rejected the Protestant allowance for divorce, the sales of indulgences are to be limited, tightened discipline for clergy, emphasized need for ceremonies, and said the only way to salvation was through the church. This newly-defined doctrine unified what Catholics believed since now, everybody was taught the same thing. Now, people found comfort in ancient ceremonies of Catholicism after decades of being angered by the prior corruptions of the RCC. Also, now the Catholic church's focus was not to try to reunite the Protestants with the Catholics since this schism remained permanent, but instead to reduce disagreement within the RCC.