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CH 4 CIS 330
Terms in this set (56)
An external entity with a specific role. In a use case model, actors are used to model interaction with the system
A fact-finding technique for gaining information through the use of a small group discussion of a specific prob- lem, opportunity, or issue.
Query that limits or restricts the range of responses. Used in the interview process when specific informa- tion or fact verification is desired.
A phase that focuses on program and application development tasks similar to the SDLC.
A phase that resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase, including data conversion, testing, changeover to the new system, and user training.
A review of baseline documentation. A useful fact-finding technique that helps an analyst understand how the current system is supposed to work.
The ability to really concentrate on what someone is saying and avoid the temptation to hear what is expected. Also includes noticing nonverbal communication.
A step in the requirements modeling process that involves gathering facts about a systems project using techniques such as interviews, documentation review, observation, questionnaires, sampling, and research.
A template used to collect data on the Internet or a company intranet
functional decomposition diagram (FDD)
A top-down representation of business functions and processes. Also called a structure chart.
A phenomenon where employees who know they are being observed are more productive.
A common tool for showing the distribution of questionnaire or sampling results. It takes the form of a vertical bar chart.
An organization based on interpersonal relationships, which can develop from previous work assignments, physical proximity, unofficial procedures, or personal relationships.
Necessary data that enters a system, either manually or in an automated manner.
A planned meeting during which information is obtained from another person.
Query that suggests or favors a particular reply.
A fact-finding technique where an analyst sees a system in action. Observation allows the verification of statements made in interviews.
Query that allows for a range of answers. It encourages spontaneous and unstructured responses, and is useful in understanding a larger process.
Electronic or printed information produced by an information system.
System characteristics such as speed, volume, capacity, availability, and reliability.
personal information manager (PIM)
A tool that helps manage tasks and schedules. Many handheld devices also include this function.
The overall diagram In business process modeling notation (BPMN).
Procedure or task that users, managers, and IT staff members perform. The logical rules of a system that are applied to transform data into meaningful information. In data flow diagrams, a process receives input data and produces output that has a different content, form, or both.
Applications such as word processing, spreadsheet, database management, and presentation graphics programs.
A document containing a number of standard questions that can be sent to many individuals. Also called a survey.
A selection taken in a random, unplanned manner. For example, a random sample might be a sample that selects any 20 customers.
Closed-ended question that asks the person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale.
requirements planning phase
A phase that combines elements of the systems planning and systems analysis phases of the SDLC.
An important fact-finding technique that include the review of journals, periodicals, and books to obtain background information, technical material, and news about industry trends and developments.
A process where an analyst collects examples of actual documents, which could include records, reports, or various forms.
A characteristic of a system, implying that the system can be expanded, modified, or downsized easily to meet the rapidly changing needs of a business enterprise.
A popular technique for agile project management. Derived from a rugby term. In Scrum, team members play specific roles and interact in intense sessions.
Hardware, software, and procedural controls that safeguard and protect a system and its data from internal or external threats.
A UML diagram that shows the timing of transactions between objects as they occur during system execution.
A trip to a physical location to observe a system in use at another location.
A set metric is collected across functional areas. For example, a certain percentage of transactions from every work shift, or five customers from each of four zip codes, could be a stratified sample.
A group discussion where each participant speaks when it is his or her turn, or passes.
A document containing a number of standard questions that can be sent to many individuals. Also called a questionnaire.
In a business process diagram, the overall diagram is called a pool, and the designated customer areas are called swim lanes.
A characteristic or feature that must be included in an information system to satisfy business requirements and be acceptable to users.
A sample that occurs at a predetermined periodicity. For example, every tenth customer record might be selected as a systematic sample for review.
Unified Modeling Language (UML)
A widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. UML uses object-oriented design concepts, but it is independent of any specific programming language and can be used to describe busi- ness processes and requirements generally.
A group discussion where any participant can speak at any time.
use case diagram
A visual representation that represents the interaction between users and the information system in UML.
user design phase
In this phase, users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, outputs, and inputs.
Zachman Framework for enterprise architecture
A model that asks the traditional fact-finding questions in a systems development context.
What five questions typically are used in fact-finding? What other question does the Zachman Framework include? Is the additional question important?
The five fact-finding questions are the familiar Who, What, Where, When, and How.
Who - Who performs each of the procedures.
What- What is being done, and what procedures are being followed.
Where - Where are the operations being performed. Where they could be performed.
When - When is the procedure performed, why is it being performed at this time, and is this the best time.
What is a system requirement, and how are system requirements classified?
A system requirement is a characteristic that must be included into the system as it is being developed to satisfy all business requirements so it can satisfy the end user.
They can be categorized into outputs, inputs, processes, performance and security.
What are JAD and RAD, and how do they differ from traditional fact-finding methods? What are the main advantages of team-based methods?
JAD - Joint Application development, this is a popular fact finding technique that brings users into the development process as active participants.
RAD - Rapid application development, this is a team based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system. The primary advantage is that the systems can be developed more quickly with the significant cost savings.
What is total cost of ownership (TCO)? What costs often are underestimated?
TCO is where system developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute the total cost of a system. Indirect costs are underestimated
Provide three examples each of closed-ended, open-ended, and range-of-response questions
Open-ended questions encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses: such as "How is the task performed?", "What are the users saying about the system?", "How are the checks reconciled?"
Close-ended questions limit or restrict the response. Three examples: "How many computers do you have in this department?", "How many hours of training does a clerk receive?", "How many customers ordered products from the website last month?"
Range of response questions are close ended questions that ask the person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to a specific response on a numeric scale. Three Examples: "How would you rate the company's security system?", "On a scale of 1 to 10 how effective was your training?"
What are three types of sampling? Which one would you use to analyze data in- put errors?
Three Examples of sampling:
Systematic - selects every tenth person for evaluation.
Random - this is done randomly
Stratified - select five customers from each four postal codes.
What is the Hawthorne Effect? Have you ever experienced it? When and where?
how various changes in the work environment would affect employee productivity.
What is a functional decomposition diagram (FDD) and why would you use one? Explain how to create an FDD
functional decomposition diagram (FDD) is a top down representation of a function or process. You would use one when you are at several stages of the development process.
What are agile methods? Are they better than traditional methods? Why or why not
Agile method - is the attempt to develop a system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements. Yes they are better than traditional methods because they are for planning and development as well as deliver and improvement of a system
To what three different audiences might you have to give a presentation? How would the presentation differ for each? Which one would be the most challeng- ing for you?
The three different types of audiences would be Senior manager, project manager, and team leader. For the senior manager you would have to give short descriptions of the existing IT systems and a short description of new and improved systems. As for project manager you should give the a very detailed description of the project. And a team leader would be giving details of a current process in progress.
The hardest would have to be to the project manager since it has to be very detailed and thorough of the project as a whole. As well as provide details about total cost of the system.
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