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Terms in this set (80)
A base, one of two purines, and which is always matched with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA
Variants of a gene. Alleles occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes and so govern the same trait. Because they are different, their action may result in different expression of that trait.
A type of molecule that forms the basic building block of proteins
Three-base sequence on the tRNA with amino acid.
Any of 92 naturally occurring elements that form a building block of matter (anything that occupied space and has density)
A subunit of a nucleotide that makes up the DNA and RNA molecules; the chemical "rungs" of the DNA/RNA spiral "ladder." Consists of purines , or adenine and guanine, and pyrimidines, which in DNA are thymine and cytosine and in RNA uracil in addition to cytosine.
A severe reduction in the size of a population such that only certain genes survive and come to characterize the descendant population.
Populations within a species that are genetically isolated to some degree from other populations.
A class of molecules that includes sugar and starches; they consist of organic compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
The smallest unit that is considered to be alive; contains a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm
Mutation of a an entire chromosome or a large portion of it.
Strands of DNA in the nucleus of a cell
Refers to the alleles both of which are expressed in the phenotype.
The three-base sequence that codes for a specific amino acid. Technically, the sequence is on the mRNA
Process by which sections of chromosomes switch between chromosome pairs.
Material within the cell between the nucleus membrane and the plasma membrane. Among others, the material includes mitochondria and ribosomes
A base, one of three pyrimidines, which matches only with guanine in DNA and RNA.
Breeding population in which physical distinctions are implied.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
The molecule that carries the genetic code; occurring in a double helix like a ladder, it comprises two strands of nucleotides and rung-like bases.
Refers to full set of chromosomes in a somatic (body) cell; two to each pair.
Refers to the allele of a pair that is expressed in the phenotype
Specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body
Divison of a population to form new populations.
Genetic differences between populations produced by the fact that genetically different individuals established (founded) the population.
The genetic change caused when genes are passed to new generations unlike those of the parental generation (an instance of sampling error).
Exchange of genes between breeding populations.
Gene or Allele Frequency
Percentage of times a particular allele appears in a population.
Portions of the DNA molecule that code for specific protein; chromosomal segment with a specific function
Evolutionary changes (changes in gene frequencies) produced by random factors or sampling error. Genetic drift results from small population size
Study of gene structure and action and the pattern of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic processes are the foundation for evolutionary change.
The entire genetic makeup of an individual or of a species.
The entire genetic composition of an individual; also refers to the alleles possessed by an individual
A base, one of two purines, and which is always matched with cytosine.
Refers to a half set of chromosomes, one member of each pair; found in gametes.
Having two different alleles in a gene pair.
Having two of the same allele in a gene pair.
Segregation of genes on different chromosomes to different gametes independently of one another.
The state in which two genes are inherited together when they occur on the same chromosome.
A class of molecules or compounds that includes fats, oils, and waxes
A saclike cellular organelle that contains various hydrolytic enzymes which break down old organelles, bacteria, and other foreign bodies and so protect the cell.
The form of cell division occurring in specialized tissues in the ovaries (female) and testes (male) that leads to the production of gametes. Each gamete has only half the normal complement of chromosomes and therefore only one allele of each original pair
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
A form of RNA that copies the DNA code in the nucleus and transports it to the ribosome
Mitochondral DNA (mtDNA)
A double-stranded loop of DNA found withing the mitochrondria. Only females can pass mtDNA to the next generation, important to fossil dating and tracing migrations of modern humans.
Mitochrondria (plural of Mitorchondrium)
Organelles found in the cytoplasm of cells that are responsible for producing energy for cellular functions.
The form of cell division whereby body cells divide in growth and replacement. Phases include prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and interphase; see text.
Structure made up of two or more atoms.
A trait coded for by a single gene. Also named Mendelian Trait.
Change in DNA or gene(s); technically, refers to changes in DNA bases as well as changes in chromosome number and/or structure
Refers to genetic change(s) in the frequency of certain traits because of differential reproductive success between individuals.
A molecule consisting of a chain of nucleotides; DNA and RNA are the prime examples in biochemistry.
The basic building block of DNA and RNA, made up of a sugar molecule, phosphate molecule, and one of four bases
A structure found in the cell that contains the chromosomes or, more precisely, the DNA.
A structure that binds the nucleus within the cell.
A specialized part of a cell in the cytoplasm that is analogous to an organ of animals. Examples include mitochondria, ribosomes, and lysosomes.
Idea that traits are passed down by individual particles according to specific principles; they are not blended. See Segregation Principle and Independent Assortment
A link between amino acids in a protein
An observable or detectable physical characteristic of an individual; the detectable expression of a genotype.
Mutation of a single gene or codon.
A trait coded for by more than one gene.
Within a species, a community of individuals where mates are usually found. Also known as a breeding population.
A molecule that makes cells and carry out cellular functions; a long chain of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
The process by which the genetic code puts together proteins in a cell.
Table in which possible genotypic combinations are charted when two heterozygotes for a trait reproduce.
Bases which, in DNA and RNA, are adenine and guanine.
One of three bases, which in both DNA and RNA, is cytosine, in DNA, is thymine, and in RNA, is uracil.
Refers to the allele of a pair that is expressed only if homozygous.
Genetic change that results from crossing over.
The copying of the genetic code during cell division; the copying of a chromosome during cell division.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A single-stranded molecule similar to DNA.
A small, spherical body in the cytoplasm of the cell in which protein synthesis takes place. See Ribonucleic Acid, Transfer Ribonucleic Acid, and Messenger Ribonucleic Acid.
Portion of the population chosen for study. Ideally, the sample should be random, allowing all individuals an equal chance at participation, and representative, reflecting all groups in the population.
Refers to a sample chosen for study that does not accurately represent the population from which the sample was taken.
Division of allele pairs in the production of gametes.
A population of organisms whose members can, under natural circumstances, freely interbreed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
A base, one of three pyramidines, which matches only with adenine in DNA.
In genetics, an inherited physical characteristic. More precisely, one aspect of a given phenotype.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Within the ribosome, a form of RNA that transports amino acids into the positions coded in the mRNA
Sequence of three bases on the DNA molecule.
A base, one of three pyrimidines, which matches only with adenine in RNA.
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
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