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President appoints about 150, who must be confirmed by the Senate; they are then sent only to those countries where the U.S. recognizes the legal existence of government
President makes agreements with other nations about what products may be traded and the rules for such trading
The primary goal of American foreign policy; the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm
White House Staff
Consists of the immediate staff of the President, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President
Chief of Staff
Most powerful political adviser to the president; the senior officer of a service of the armed forces
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
Prepares the federal budget and monitors spending in hundreds of government agencies
National Security Council (NSC)
Helps the president direct the United States military and foreign policy; handles matters affecting the security of the country
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
Helps the president carry out the role of economic leader; primary duty involves giving the president advice about complex economic matters such as employment, inflation, and foreign trade
Department of Housing and Urban Development
(1965) Deals with the special needs and problems of cities
Civil Service System
The practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit
In this system, government jobs went to people as a reward for their political support
Government officials hire new workers from lists of people who have passed the tests or otherwise met civil service standards
The Pendleton Act 1883
Created the civil service system and placed limits on the number of jobs a new president could hand out to friends and backers
The agencies and employees of the executive branch; turn new laws into action by deciding how to apply the laws to daily life, administer the day-to-day opertations of the federal government, and with authority from Congress, regulate various activities
Agencies that are not part of the cabinet; three types - executive agencies, government corporations, and regulatory commissions
Like private businesses, except that the government rather than individuals owns and operates them; charge fees for their services/products, but they are not supposed to make a profit; ex. the United States Postal Service
People whom the president has chosen because they have proven executive ability or were important supporters of the president's election campaign
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