46 terms

Civics Chapter 7 Sections 3/4

Formal agreements between the governments of two or more countries
Executive Agreement
An agreement between the president and the leader of another country
Appointing Ambassadors
President appoints about 150, who must be confirmed by the Senate; they are then sent only to those countries where the U.S. recognizes the legal existence of government
Foreign Aid
Money, food, military assistance, or other supplies given to help other countries
International Trade
President makes agreements with other nations about what products may be traded and the rules for such trading
Military Force
Presidents may use the military to carry out some foreign-policy decisions
National Security
The primary goal of American foreign policy; the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm
An official representative of a country's government
Trade Sanctions
Efforts to push another nation by imposing trade barriers
An agreement among a group of nations that prohibits them from trading with a target nation
North American Free Trade Agreement
Presidency; the tenure of a president
White House Staff
Consists of the immediate staff of the President, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President
Chief of Staff
Most powerful political adviser to the president; the senior officer of a service of the armed forces
Press Secretary
Provides the public with news about and statements from the president
Speech Writer
Writes the president's speeches
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
Prepares the federal budget and monitors spending in hundreds of government agencies
National Security Council (NSC)
Helps the president direct the United States military and foreign policy; handles matters affecting the security of the country
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Gathers information about the governments of other countries
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
Helps the president carry out the role of economic leader; primary duty involves giving the president advice about complex economic matters such as employment, inflation, and foreign trade
Department of State
(1789) Plans and carries out the nation's foreign policy
Department of the Treasury
(1789) Collects, borrows, spends, and prints money
Department of Defense
(1789 as War Department;renamed in 1949) Manages the armed forces
Department of Justice
(1870) Responsible for all aspects of law enforcement
Department of the Interior
(1849) Manages and protects nation's public lands and natural resources
Department of Agriculture
(1889) Assists farmers and consumers of farm products
Department of Commerce
(1903) Supervises trade, promotes US business, tourism
Department of Labor
(1913) Deals with working conditions, wages of the US workers
Department of Health and Human Services
(1953) Works for the well-being and health of all Americans
Department of Housing and Urban Development
(1965) Deals with the special needs and problems of cities
Department of Transportation
(1966) Manages nation's highways railroads, arilines, and sea traffic
Department of Energy
(1977) Directs overall energy plan for the nations
Department of Education
(1979) Provides advice and funding for schools
Department of Veterans Affairs
(1989) Directs services for armed forces veterans
Department of Homeland Security
(2002) Oversees America's defenses against terrorist attacks
Civil Servants
People who work for government departments or agencies
Civil Service System
The practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit
"Spoils System"
In this system, government jobs went to people as a reward for their political support
"Merit System"
Government officials hire new workers from lists of people who have passed the tests or otherwise met civil service standards
The Pendleton Act 1883
Created the civil service system and placed limits on the number of jobs a new president could hand out to friends and backers
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
Directs the civil service system today
Federal Bureaucracy
The agencies and employees of the executive branch; turn new laws into action by deciding how to apply the laws to daily life, administer the day-to-day opertations of the federal government, and with authority from Congress, regulate various activities
Independent Agencies
Agencies that are not part of the cabinet; three types - executive agencies, government corporations, and regulatory commissions
Government Corporations
Like private businesses, except that the government rather than individuals owns and operates them; charge fees for their services/products, but they are not supposed to make a profit; ex. the United States Postal Service
Political Appointees
People whom the president has chosen because they have proven executive ability or were important supporters of the president's election campaign
A group of presidential advisers that includes the heads of the 15 top-level executive departments