What gave justification to political resistance and political resistance made it a viable religious alternative in France.
He who controls the land may determine its religion
The phrase, cuius regio, eius religio, means : __ ____ ______ ___ ____ ___ _______ ___ ________.
Catherine de Medici had to contend with which families for control of France after the death of Henry II? a.) Bourbons b.) Guises c.) Montmorency-Chantillions d.) all of the above
The motto, "one king, one church, one law," was supported by which religious group?
William of Orange
Who was a Calvinist, a Lutheran, & a Catholic all at different times of his life?
Both Henry III and Henry IV of France were ___________.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Who was executed because of her complicity in plots against Elizabeth.
During the reign of Mary I, Protestant legislation was ________.
Thirty Years' War
The _____ _____ ___ and the treaty that followed resulted I French division of and control over the duchies of Germany & the decentralization of Germany over two centuries to come.
Peace of Augsburg
The ______ __ _______ had attempted to freeze the territorial holdings of the Catholics and Lutherans.
In the second half of the 16th century, Germany had about how many autonomous political entities?
Who was valued to Elizabeth because he served as watchdog over Mary Stuart?
The Lutherans came to fear _______ because their criticism of the Lutheran doctrine of Christ's real presence in the Eucharist in the Eucharist alarmed conservative Lutherans.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
What is 1588 gave heart to Protestant resistance everywhere & inflicted a defeat from which Spain never recovered.
Retention & continuation
A major grievance of the Puritans was the _______of the Catholic ceremony and vestments and the __________ of the episcopal system of church governance.
Elizabeth I's religious settlement can best be described as: a.) moderate Calvinism with toleration of Catholics assured b.) a central episcopal system with broadly defined Catholic doctrine and traditional Protestant ritual c.) a central episcopal system with broadly defined Protestant doctrine and traditional Catholic ritual d.) both B and C
The ________ was a national covenant which pledged to resist the Council of Trent and the Inquisition.
The richest area of Phillip II's Hapsburg kingdom was the?
Cardinal Granville and the Duke of Alba
Two men who helped shape and enforce Philip II's policy toward the Netherlands were?
Inflation & loan
Phillip II of Spain was generally a successful king, but his reign also suffered from ________, a wide gap b/w rich and poor, and ____ defaults.
The Edict of Nantes
What recognized Huguenot religious freedom and rights of Protestants to participate in French public institutions.
St.Bartholomew's Day Massacre
What resulted in a new wave of distrust and expanded warfare among Protestants and Catholics and also resulted in an international struggle for survival for the Protestants.
Catholics and Protestants
Catherine de Medici's first concern was to preserve the French monarchy and in accordance with that policy she was ambivalent in her support of _______ & ________.
Spanish strength in the second half of the sixteenth century was based on: a.) an efficient national bureaucracy b.) a subjugated peasantry c.)¬¬¬ wealth from the New World d.) all of the above
The husband of Mary I was?
The Pacification of Ghent
What was NOT a compromise b/w the English and Spanish over the Netherlands; NOT the process of consolidation after the Spanish victory over the Dutch; & NOT the declaration of internal regional sovereignty in matters of religion b/w the English and Dutch?
Portugal, the Netherlands, & England
What countries did Philip II of Spain attempt to conquer?
In 1571 the Spanish ended Turkish control of the Mediterranean at the battle of?
Gaspard de Coligny
Who was one of the leaders of the French protestant resistance and was attacked during the St.Bartholomew's Day Massacre?