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Ch. 1 & 2
Terms in this set (31)
Atoms/particles that have no charge but are missing electrons. They are chemically UNstable.
changes an atom by electrons being kicked out; can be bad because of being an unstable atom.
kVp, atomic number, and tissue thickness
What determines penetrability of x-ray photons? (HINT: 3 things)
another name for speed of light
8 properties of x-rays
2. Electrically neutral
3. Varying degrees of tissue penetrability
4. cannot be deflected
5. cannot be focused
6. travel in straight lines at the speed of light
7. produce charged particles in matter
8. polyenergetic beam
Consequences of ionization
-creation of unstable atoms
-production of free electrons
-production of low-energy x-rays
-creation of free radicals
-creation of new biologic molecules
-injury to cells
4 steps that can lead to bodily harm
1. Ionization of atoms
2. molecular change
3. Cellular damage
4. Abnormal or loss of function leading to genetic and somatic damage (mutations, cataracts, leukemia)
Exposure, absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose
4 main units of radiation measurement:
-Amount of ionization produced in air (ex: ai at the surface of the x-ray table top)
-measured in coulombs/ kg or mR
-Amount of energy deposited in a material per unit mass
-Measured in mGy
-Takes into account the type of ionizing radiation that was absorbed
-measured in mSv
-Absorbed dose received by human tissue
-Best overall measure of biologic effects of ionizing radiation
-measured in mSv
Background equivalent Radiation time
What does BERT stand for?
Compares the amount of radiation acquired during a particular procedure to the amount of background radiation acquired during a given amount of time.
BERT is NOT a ______________ __________.
-Is NOT a radiation quantity
-Does NOT imply radiation risk; it is only a means of comparison
-It emphasizes that radiation is an innate part of our environment
-It provides an answer that is easy for the patient to comprehend.
Electromagnetic and particulate
What are 2 types of ionizing radiation?
-Are emitted from the nucleus of some atoms during radioactive decay.
-Consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons (Helium nuclei)
-Have very low mass
-Have extremely high LET
-Have a very strong positive charge
Alpha particles and beta particles
What are the 2 types of particulate radiation?
Terrestrial, Cosmic, and internal
What are 3 sources of radiation?
Comes from the radioactive materials in the Earth's crust
Is the most abundant source of natural background radiation through alpha particles
Comes from the sun/solar system and varies with geographic location
Comes from radionuclides inside the body; some are naturally occurring within the human body and some have been ingested from food or air particles
What is the number one most common source of natural radiation exposure to humans?
Radiation safety program
Is an effective and detailed program that ensures adequate radiation safety of the patients and radiation workers.
How much annual dose do humans receive from natural sources?
How much annual dose do humans receive from manmade sources?
How much annual dose do humans receive from BOTH natural and manmade sources?
Medical imaging (CT)
What is the number one most common source of artificial radiation exposure to humans?
Sources of manmade (artificial) radiation:
-Consumer products (surveillance systems, electron microscopes, smoke detector alarms)
-Atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapon testing
-Nuclear power accidents
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch. 4 & 5
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