Terms in this set (46)
4 Functions of a cell
1. Conduction of nerve impulses
2. contraction of muscles
3. support of organs
4. Transportation of body fluids
Is a fundamental component of structure, development, growth, and life processes in the human body.
All organic compounds contain what element?
Organic and inorganic compounds that enable cells to metabolize food and oxygen, synthesize proteins, and eliminate waste products.
Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
What are the 4 main organic compounds found in the body?
Water and mineral salts
inorganic compounds consist of: (Hint: 2 things)
Messenger RNA and Transfer RNA
What are the 2 types of RNA?
the telephone between the DNA in the nucleus and the outside
receives messages from mRNA and decodes it for protein synthesis
-Is a messenger between DNA and ribosomes where DNA synthesis occurs
-Is single stranded
____________ matches with Thymine
______________ matches with Adenine
___________ matches with cytosine
_____________ matches with guanine
-Is considered the master chemical substance of the body
-It is how all cells function
-Carries all genetic information necessary for function and replication
-Regulates all cell activity
-The sequence of base pairs constitutes the genetic code
Humans have ___ chromosomes in somatic cells
How many pairs of chromosomes are present in the human genome?
Segments of DNA divided into subunits that contain information on cellular activities, growth and development, or hereditary information.
composed of protein and DNA macromolecules
What is the most abundant inorganic compound found in the body?
-Keep correct proportion of water in the cell
-help cell performance
-creation of energy
-conduction of nerve impulses
-Is the primary inorganic substance in the body
-medium for chemical reactions within the cell
-Ensures correct concentration of chemicals
-transports vehicle for materials the cell uses or eliminates
-maintains body temperature
-lubricates digestive system, joints, and organs
-nickname:; plastic storage bag
-encases the cell
-made of lipids and proteins
-functions as a barricade to protect the cell
-controls passage of water and other material
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
-Nickname: cell highway
-Enables the cell to communicate with extracellular environment and transfer food and molecules from one part of the cell to another.
-Nickname: mail service
-Concentrates, packages, and transports enzymes and hormones through the cell membrane
-Supplies the energy for the cell
-Nickname: suicide bags
-breaks down cell garbage
-Nickname: protein factory
Contains centrioles that assist in cell division
-Heart of the cell
-Controls cell division
-contains DNA, proteins, and nucleolus
-Nucleolus manufactures and stores RNA
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What are the 4 steps of mitosis?
Consists of G1, S, G2
Is the Pre-DNA synthesis phase
Is the Synthesis phase
-DNA copies and divides into chromatids
Is the post-DNA synthesis phase
-prepares for cell division
Is the active process of cellular division; is the reproduction of somatic cells
-The mitotic spindle forms
-Nuclear membrane dissolves, emitting chromosomes
-Chromosomes line up at the equator with spindle fibers attaches
-Only phase in which mutation or biologic damage can be visualized
-Spindles pull chromosomes apart into chromatid halves
-Chromatids pulled to the outside walls of the cells
-Spindle breaks down
-2 nuclei form
-Cellular and nuclear membranes generate
-each daughter cell has exactly 46 chromosomes
What is the only phase in which mutation or biological damage can be visualized?
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