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19 terms

Science, vocab, Chapter 4, 7th grade, FRA

Science, vocab, Chapter 4, 7th grade, FRA
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diffusion
the movement of particles from an area where their concentration is high to an area that the concentration is low. This can occur across cell membranes or outside the cell. No energy needed for this to occur.
osmosis
the diffusion of water through the cell membrane.
phospholipid molecules
makes up the cell membrane they are small and some particles can pass through them.
passive transport
the diffusion of particles through the proteins goes from high concentration to low concentration with no energy needed. .
active transport
the movement of particles through proteins against the normal directions of diffusion. Particle go from low concentration to high use energy that comes from ATP
ATP
stores energy in a form that cells can use. Molecule that stores energy to fuel activities of the cell.
endocytosis
the cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it to form a vesicle. Can bring in other cells this way
exocytosis
vesicles formed at the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi complex and carry the particles to the cell membrane and out of the cell.
photosynthesis
plants can capture light energy from the sun and change it into food
pigment
are plant molecules that absorb the energy of light.
cholorphyll
the main pigment and gives plant their green color
Choloplasts
has cholorphyll
plant energy
change carbon dioxide and water into food
glucose
carbohydrate: energy used by plants that use to store energy
oxygen
is produced by photosynthesis
cellular respiration
use to obtain energy from food. uses oxygen. Food -glucose is broken down into CO2 and H20 and energy is released. eukaryotes_ takes place in mitochodria.
fermentation
does not use oxygen. To produce small amounts of atp and products from the partial breakdown of glucose. Can occue in muscles and produces lactic acid
lactic acid fermentation
in muscle causes muscle fatigue after strenous activity. occurs in animals and some types of fungi and bacteria
carbon dioxide and alcohol fermentation
fermentation that occurs in bacteria and yeast.