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Science, vocab, Chapter 4, 7th grade, FRA


the movement of particles from an area where their concentration is high to an area that the concentration is low. This can occur across cell membranes or outside the cell. No energy needed for this to occur.


the diffusion of water through the cell membrane.

phospholipid molecules

makes up the cell membrane they are small and some particles can pass through them.

passive transport

the diffusion of particles through the proteins goes from high concentration to low concentration with no energy needed. .

active transport

the movement of particles through proteins against the normal directions of diffusion. Particle go from low concentration to high use energy that comes from ATP


stores energy in a form that cells can use. Molecule that stores energy to fuel activities of the cell.


the cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it to form a vesicle. Can bring in other cells this way


vesicles formed at the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi complex and carry the particles to the cell membrane and out of the cell.


plants can capture light energy from the sun and change it into food


are plant molecules that absorb the energy of light.


the main pigment and gives plant their green color


has cholorphyll

plant energy

change carbon dioxide and water into food


carbohydrate: energy used by plants that use to store energy


is produced by photosynthesis

cellular respiration

use to obtain energy from food. uses oxygen. Food -glucose is broken down into CO2 and H20 and energy is released. eukaryotes_ takes place in mitochodria.


does not use oxygen. To produce small amounts of atp and products from the partial breakdown of glucose. Can occue in muscles and produces lactic acid

lactic acid fermentation

in muscle causes muscle fatigue after strenous activity. occurs in animals and some types of fungi and bacteria

carbon dioxide and alcohol fermentation

fermentation that occurs in bacteria and yeast.

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