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Terms in this set (40)
class of nutrients that includes glucose, a major source of energy for the body
group of carbohydrates that includes sugars
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
caloric sweetener that is often added to food
simple sugar that is the basic chemical unit of carbohydrates
simple sugar comprised of two monosaccharides
monosaccharide that is a primary fuel for muscles and other cells; "dextrose" or "blood sugar"
monosaccharide in fruits, honey, and certain vegetables; "levulose" or "fruit sugar"
monosaccharide that is a component of lactose
disaccharide comprised of two glucose molecules; "malt sugar"
disaccharide comprised of a glucose and a fructose molecule; "table sugar"
disaccharide comprised of a glucose and a galactose molecule; "milk sugar"
substances that sweeten and contribute energy to foods
sugars added to foods during processing or preparation
substances that sweeten foods while providing few or no kilocalories
group of synthetic compounds that are intensely sweet tasting compared to sugar
complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)
compounds comprised of 10 or more monosaccharides bonded together
storage polysaccharide in plants
storage polysaccharide in animals
dietary fiber (fiber)
nondigestible plant material; most types are polysaccharides
forms of dietary fiber that dissolve or swell in water
forms of dietary fiber that generally do not dissolve in water
enzyme secreted by salivary glands that begins starch digestion
enzyme secreted by pancreas that breaks down starch into maltose molecules
enzyme that splits maltose molecule
enzyme that splits sucrose molecule
enzyme that splits lactose molecule
hormone that helps regulate blood glucose levels (decrease)
hormone that helps regulate blood glucose levels (increase)
chemicals that result from incomplete fat breakdown
condition that occurs when the body forms excessive ketone bodies
diabetes mellitus (diabetes)
group of serious chronic diseases characterized by abnormal glucose, fat, and protein metabolism
abnormally high blood glucose level
condition characterized by fasting blood glucose levels that are 100 to 125 mg/dl
form of diabetes that pregnant women can develop
condition that occurs when the blood glucose level is abnormally low
condition that increases risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD
group of signs and symptoms that occur together and indicate a specific health problem
abnormal, tiny sacs that form in wall of colon
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