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25 terms

Digestive System

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amylase
enzyme secreted by salivary glands and pancreas that breaks down starch into maltose ( a disaccharide)
peristalsis
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
ingestion
the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
cardiac sphincter
located at the base of the esophagus and functions to prevent food materials from entering the esophagus from the stomach
pyloric sphincter
circular muscle that controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the small intestines and prevents its backflow
pepsin
an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones
rennin
important to infants because it curdles the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption.
ulcer
an open sore or lesion in the skin or mucous membrane.
secretin
A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.
duodenum
first part of the small intestine
enterokinase
enzyme in the intestinal juice that converts inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin
trypsinogen
precursor of trypsin that is in the pancreas and is activated to trypsin in the small intestine
trypsin
enzyme that acts in the small intestine to break down protein chains into smaller chains of amino acids
erepsins
enzymes that complete protein digestion by converting small-chain peptides to amino acids.(secreted by pancreas and cells of small intestine; works in the lumen of the small intestine)
lipases
enzymes released from the pancreas that break down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
bile
substance produced by the liver and released into the small intestine where it emulsifies fat and raises the pH of the chyme entering from the stomach
gall bladder
organ that stores bile
rectum
the lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored
villi
Small fingerlike projections on the walls of the small intestines that increase surface area
microvilli
Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.
gastrin
a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach lining; stimulates the secretion of fluid by gastric glands in the stomach
enterogastrone
For very fatty foods, the duodenum releases this hormone to slow down the release of chyme by the stomach. (Fats take longer to digest).
disaccharases
breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides in the small intestine
hydrochloric acid
produced by the stomach, kills bacteria, and converts pepsinogen into pepsin
mucus in stomach
secretion that protects the stomach cells from gastric juices