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enzyme secreted by salivary glands and pancreas that breaks down starch into maltose ( a disaccharide)


the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along


the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)

cardiac sphincter

located at the base of the esophagus and functions to prevent food materials from entering the esophagus from the stomach

pyloric sphincter

circular muscle that controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the small intestines and prevents its backflow


an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones


important to infants because it curdles the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption.


an open sore or lesion in the skin or mucous membrane.


A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.


first part of the small intestine


enzyme in the intestinal juice that converts inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin


precursor of trypsin that is in the pancreas and is activated to trypsin in the small intestine


enzyme that acts in the small intestine to break down protein chains into smaller chains of amino acids


enzymes that complete protein digestion by converting small-chain peptides to amino acids.(secreted by pancreas and cells of small intestine; works in the lumen of the small intestine)


enzymes released from the pancreas that break down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids


substance produced by the liver and released into the small intestine where it emulsifies fat and raises the pH of the chyme entering from the stomach

gall bladder

organ that stores bile


the lower part of the large intestine where feces are stored


Small fingerlike projections on the walls of the small intestines that increase surface area


Tiny hair-like projections of the cytoplasmic membrane located only in the small intestine to facilitate absorption by increasing surface area.


a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach lining; stimulates the secretion of fluid by gastric glands in the stomach


For very fatty foods, the duodenum releases this hormone to slow down the release of chyme by the stomach. (Fats take longer to digest).


breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides in the small intestine

hydrochloric acid

produced by the stomach, kills bacteria, and converts pepsinogen into pepsin

mucus in stomach

secretion that protects the stomach cells from gastric juices

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