American Association of Retired Persons; Nationwide organization for people over 50 that offers discount drug purchases, health & auto insurance, publications, & other activities
Bakke v. California
Supreme Court case dealing with affirmative action that ruled that affirmative action programs in principle are constitutional, but a strict quota system wasn't
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Are segregated schools legal? 1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Argument that pay levels for traditionally male and traditionally female jobs should be equalized by paying equally all jobs that are "worth about the same" to an employer
Property law in the 1700's that states that women are legally property of fathers until 21 or marriage, and then she's the property of her husband
De facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
De jure segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
Declaration of Sentiments
Declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures
Equality of opportunity
The idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life
Equality of results
Everyone receives the same in the end (i.e. salaries)
Hardwick v. Georgia
1986 the Supreme Court addressed homosexual rights for the 1st time. It ruledthat Georgia's law forbidding homosexual relations was constitutional. The Court based its decision on original intent (the intent of the founders), noting that all 13 colonies had laws against homosexual relations, as did all 50 states until 1961.
Jim Crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Lawrence v. Texas
(2002)Lawrence and Garner were convicted with deviate sexual intercourse, violating Texas' statute forbidding two persons of the same sex to engage in certain intimate sexual conduct. the question was, Does the"Homosexual Conduct" law violate the Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of equal protection of laws? Because the Homosexual Conduct law criminalizes sexual intimacy by same-sex couples, but not different-sex couples. 6 votes for lawrence and Garner, 3 votes against.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Native American Rights Fund
Provides legal representation and technical assistance to Indian tribes, organizations and individuals nationwide
Granted women the right to vote in 1920
Office of Economic Opportunity
1965 - Part of the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.
A view that the Constitution should be interpreted according to the original intent of the framers. Many conservatives support this view.
Plessy v. Ferguson
A 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Pro-choice v. pro-life
Whose decision is it? Pro-choice -> women can choose to have an abortion Pro-life -> abortions should not be legal
When the government treats some classes of people differently from others, the different treatment must be reasonable and not arbitrary
Areas of federal land set aside for American Indians
Discrimination against a majority group such as whites or males
Richmond v. Croson
Affirmative action plans must be judged by the strict scrutiny standard that requires any race-conscious plan to be narrowly tailored to serve a compelling interest
Roe v. Wade
(1973) In this highly controversial case the Supreme Court laid down what states can and cannot control in regards to abortions
Roster v. Goldberg
The practice of requiring only men to register for the draft was constitutional
Separate but equal doctrine
Supreme Court rule stating that the equal protection clause was not violated by the fact of state mandated racial segregation alone, provided that the separated facilities were equal
Any unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature
The drive for voting rights for women that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920.
Any classification of groups meeting a series of criteria suggesting they are likely the subject of discrimination
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Civil Rights Act of 1964—forbids discrimination based on sex, race, color, national origin, or religion
United Steelworkers v. Weber
Court ruling dealing with reverse discrimination charges; upheld that Title VII allows for voluntary, private, race-conscious programs aimed at eliminating racial imbalance in traditionally segregated categories
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections