CJ GLY 101 Final GTC
Terms in this set (52)
The _______ collectively make up the lithosphere.
the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle
The mineral structures composed of isolated tetrahedra have no planes of weakness, which means minerals such as garnet have no
Both graphite and diamond are made entirely of carbon, yet they have very different physical characteristics because ______.
of the type of bonding between the carbon atoms
A _____ is a piece of older "country rock" that was enveloped in an intrusion but not completely melted.
What do Yellowstone, Crater Lake, and Long Valley, California, have in common volcanically?
They have had caldera eruptions
At the surface of the Earth, ultramafic rocks in kimberlite pipes weather away leaving behind concentrations of _____.
_______ occurs when the agent of transportation no longer has the energy needed to move the sediment.
A schist that developed in a high-pressure, low-temperature environment likely formed:
in a lower part of the continental crust
How can contact metamorphism be used to date rocks?
A metamorphosed rock is older than the magma that metamorphosed it
Which of the following earth materials would you expect to have the lowest permeability?
Not all deserts are hot. Descending air near the North and South poles creates ____ deserts.
U.S. coasts with gently sloping plains, such as those along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, are ____.
On a surface leveled by erosion the pattern of exposed beds of a plunging fold resembles that of the letter __.
Most earthquakes at divergent plate boundaries are
The rock record for tens of millions of years indicates that the Earth's magnetic field ____.
reverses polarity about every 500,000 years
The ocean became salty as water picked up chlorine from volcanic gases and sodium and magnesium from weathering of minerals at the Earth's surface.
This figure shows ages of seafloor. The oldest ocean floor is at site numbered ____________ .
The ____________ hypothesis, first proposed by Harry Hess, involves a tandem relationship between ____________ at mid-ocean ridge systems and ____________ at ocean trenches to help explain how tectonic plates move.
seafloor spreading, continent-continent convergence, ridge push
The continental crust is thicker ______.
under the craton than under the mountain belts
Without this, the Earth would warm up rapidly due to the absorption of solar radiation.
emission of infrared radiation
At this point in time global mean temperatures begin to increase substantially and quite rapidly.
Major mountain belts with higher mountain ranges tend to be geologically _____ relative to those where the mountain are lower
____ volcanoes can be found along subducting plate boundaries
some geologic features found at active continental margins include oceanic trenches, which are ______ and earthquakes, which occur _______.
a deep and narrow trough parallel to the continent or island arc, at locations of negative gravity anomalies.
seismic P-waves --- through continental crust relative to oceanic crust
___ focus earthquakes are the most common.
In a ________ fault, the hanging wall block move up with respect to the footwall block.
A wave begins to "feel the bottom" at a water depth equal to ____.
half a wave length
Sand grains found in dunes are commonly _____.
well sorted and well rounded
The amount of ground water is ____ that of all rivers and lakes combined.
Our best estimates for the age of the earth come from rocks collected from the moon and from
minerals in Australia
A mineral is said to be _____ if after a long time it does not convert to a new mineral
Oil and natural gas originate from _____ in marine sediments.
Which of the following is not involved in the creation of an exfoliation dome
Imagine two magmas identical in all respects (for example, same temperature, pressure, volume) except that one has more silica than the other. Which magma will have the higher viscosity?
The cooler magma will be more viscous.
How does Earth's obliquity affect climate?
When Earth has a more circular orbit, seasonal temperatures vary less.
Geologists regard most bodies of ultramafic rock as being ____________
mantle material faulted into the crust during orogeny
Identify the different features of ocean-continent convergent plate boundary by placing the labels in the correct positions
(right to left, see photo) Oceanic crust, Lithosphere (top), Asthenosphere (bottom), Accretionary wedge, Trench, Forearc basin, Magmatic arc, Backarc basin, Continental crust
The main feature in the seafloor near Monterey Bay is a large ____________ that was partly carved by rivers when the region was above sea level.
Flanking the coast is a broad, relatively flat part of the seafloor called the ____________ .
A sloping part of the seafloor, called the ____________ occurs between very shallow seafloor and the deep seafloor. It contains canyons that carry dense slurries of sediment-rich water, called ____________ .
Because _____ can be accurately calculated, the size and shape of the core can be determined.
What type of stress would you expect at divergent plate boundaries?
The height and length of a wave is a function of _____.
All of these answers are correct
Because of their low rainfall, intermittent stream flow, and dry stream beds, desert lack ____.
Gasoline leaking from an underground storage tank will
infiltrate to the top of the water table on which it will float
The Earth's largest mass extinction coincides with _____ in Siberia.
The most important factors controlling the characters of metamorphic rocks include
All of the choices are correct
A cross-bedded sandstone is formed when ______.
sand moves as a migrating ripple or dune
When fossil fuels are burned _____, enter the atmosphere to form acid rain.
oxides of nitrogen (NO2) and sulfur (SO2)
The islands of the Hawaii chain are an excellent example of a series of _____.
Mantle material within the overlying plate in a subduction zone will partially melt due to ______.
the addition of water from the subducted plate
A pulverized mineral (usually on a piece of white unglazed porcelain) gives a color called its ____, that is usually more reliable than the color of the specimen itself.
Oceanic crust is created at ______ and destroyed at ______.
oceanic-ridges, subduction zones
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