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Presidents & Events: Comprehensive (?)
Terms in this set (137)
George Washington (1789-1797)
John Adams (1797-1801)
Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)
James Madison (1809-1817)
James Monroe (1817-1825)
John Quincy Adams (1825-1829)
Andrew Jackson (1829-1837)
Martin Van Buren (1837-1841)
William Henry Harrison (1841)
John Tyler (1841-1845)
(Anti-Jackson Democrat, Ran on Whig Ticket)
James K. Polk (1845-1849)
Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)
Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)
Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)
James Buchanan (1857-1861)
Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865)
Andrew Johnson (1865-1869)
Ulysses S. Grant (1869-1877)
Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)
James A. Garfield (1881)
Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885)
Grover Cleveland (1885-1889)
Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893)
Grover Cleveland (1893-1897)
William McKinley (1897-1901)
Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
William H. Taft (1909-1913)
Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)
"dark horse candidate"
Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929)
Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)
Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)
Richard M. Nixon (1969-1974)
Gerald Ford (1974-1976)
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)
Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)
George H.W. Bush (1989-1993)
William (Bill) J. Clinton (1993-2001)
George W. Bush (2001-2009)
Barack Obama (2009-2017)
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Spain and Portugal divide the world with Pope's blessing
Peace of Paris (1763)
end of 7 Year's War; France leaves North America
Franco-American Alliance (1778)
France sides with US in Rev War; provides $$ and other aid
Treaty of Paris (1783)
ended Revolutionary War; US extends to Mississippi, G Lakes, Florida
Jay's Treaty (1794)
GB to pay for seized shipping; US to pay pre-Rev debts to British merchants
Pinckney's Treaty (1795)
Spain grants free passage of Mississippi; cedes lands north of Florida
Treaty of Greenville (1795)
Miami Confederacy cedes Ohio and Indiana
Convention of 1800 (1800)
annuls 1779 treaty with France; US to pay damages to US shippers
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
ended War of 1812; both sides return seized lands; no indemnities paid
Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817)
demilitarization of Great Lakes
Treaty of 1818 (1818)
GB and US agree to Canadian border at the 49th parallel; joint occupy Oregon Country
Florida Purchase (1819)
Spain cedes Florida; US cedes Texas; SPain cedes Oregon [also known as ADAMS-ONIS TREATY]
Russo-American Treaty (1824)
Russia cedes claims below 54-40 parallel
Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)
GB/US agree to Maine and Minnesota borders with Canada. Ended Aroostook War.
Oregon Treaty (1846)
GB and US agree to divide Oregon at 49th parallel
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
ended Mexican War; southwest to US; US pays indemnity
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)
US and GB agree not to colonize Central America/fortify a isthmian canal
Gasden Purchase (1853)
US purchases southern New Mexico Territory from Mexico for Railroad
Ostend Manifesto (1854)
US proposes seizing Cuba from Spain (public opinion kills idea)
Treaty of Paris (1898)
Spain cedes Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, leaves Cuba
Open Door Note (1899)
US Proposes to Euro powers/Japan to not carve up China
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903)
under Teddy Roosevelt
Panama grants canal rights to US
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1907)
under Teddy Roosevelt
GB agrees US can build and fortify canal (overruled Clayton-Bulwer)
Root-Takahira Treaty (1908)
under Teddy Roosevelt
US/Japan agree to Open Door and respect territories in Asia/Pacific
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
ended WWI, divided up colonies (rejected by US senate)
Five Power Naval Treaty (1922)
GB/US/France/Italy/Japan agree to limit naval tonnage
Four Power Treaty (1921)
US/GB/France/Japan agree to maintain status quo in Asia/Pacific
Nine Power Treaty (1922)
status quo in China pledged (reaffirming Open Door Policy)
Kellog-Briand Pact (1928)
62 countries agree to outlaw war as policy
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)
alliance against Soviet Union
South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) (1954)
alliance against USSR/China
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963)
no atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972)
limited missile defense systems (killed by Reagan's Star Wars-SDI)
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (1972)
reduction of nuclear weapons
Paris Peace Accords (1973)
US/North Vietnam end Vietnam War
START I (1991)
under Bush Senior
US/USSR agree to reduce nuclear weapons
Judiciary Act (1789)
organized the Supreme Court into a court with a Chief Justice and 5 associate judges. Also organized federal and district courts, and created the post of Attorney General.
Tariff of 1789 (1789)
under Washington. designed to raise revenue for the federal government; resulted in a government surplus
Whiskey Rebellion (1791-1794)
protest and rebellion in Pennsylvania, caused by a tax on liquor. it tested the strength of the federal government, and washington's skills. It proved that the government was strong and merciful.
French Revolution (1789-1799)
under Washington/John Adams
Overthrow of the French Monarchy, establishment of republican secular state. Inspired by American Rev. incited by taxes and misrepresentation of Third Estate. Ended with the rise of Napoleon
Washington's Farewell Address (1796)
stressed maintaining commercial, but not political, ties with other nations; stressed not entering permanent alliances; America's uniqueness depended on being independent in regards to foreign affairs
First Bank of the United States (1791-1811)
first Central bank of the US chartered for a 20-year period by Congress. Its creation was part of a three-part federal expansion of Federal fiscal and monetary power (along with federal mint and excise [duty] taxes). It was championed by Alexander Hamilton, Washington's Secretary of the Treasury. He believed bank was necessary to stabilize and improve nation's credit, and to improve the handling of financial business in the US under the new Constitution.
X, Y, Z Affair (1797)
the US began to refuse to acknowledge the Franco American Alliance. Adams had also criticized the French Revolution. France began to sever relations. Adams sent a foreign diplomat to meet with Talleyrand (French Foreign Minister). Three of Talleyrand's agents, which were known to the US public as X, Y, and Z, tried to extract a large amount of money from the diplomat in return of meeting Talleyrand. Caused scandal in US when made public by Adams.
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
Four laws passed by Federalist Congress which were signed by Adams.
The Naturalization act extended the period that immigrants had to wait to become citizens from 5 to 14. The Alien act allowed to president to arrest and deport any dangerous aliens.
The Alien Enemy act allowed the deportation of aliens who hailed from countries in conflict or war with the US.
these three acts were in response to the XYZ affair, and were mostly for French and Irish immigrants.
The Sedition act made it illegal to print any defaming literature on the federal government and/or officials.
this was to keep those opposing Federalists in check.
these acts severely weakened the popularity of the Federalists and Adams himself.
Midnight Judges Act (1801)
At the twilight of his presidency, Adams filled both federal and district courts with Federalist judges, to ensure at least one hold of federalist power in the government. This was a smart mood, because soon, Federalists became the minority party. It is called "Midnight Judges Act" because Adams supposedly stayed up until the wee hours of the morning singing in the new judges.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798)
The Kentucky and Virginia acts were written in response to the Alien and Sedition acts, and were the first acts to initiate the concept of the nullification of federal law.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Marbury, a judge, sued James Madison for not delivering his "midnight judge" commission. Chief Justice John Marshall declared that it was illegal for Madison to refuse to deliver the commission. However, Marshall also found that the Midnight Judges Act was unconstitutional. This case set up the doctrine of judicial review, which means that the supreme court is the group that can determine the meaning of the constitution.
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
U.S. acquisition of the Louisiana territory from France in 1803 for $15 million. It doubled the size of America and secured the Americanization of the Mississippi and New Orleans, as well as opening up the West to settlers. Napoleon sold it to gain financing for Wars in Europe. Plus, the conflict in Haiti had soured his view of New World colonies. Jefferson legally couldn't buy the territory, because the constitution said the federal government couldn't, but used loose reconstruction in order to secure a deal. Federalists opposed the idea of the purchase because they felt Jefferson was overstepping his power as a president.
Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1805)
Explored and mapped the newly-purchased Louisiana Territory. Started in St. Louis, ended in Oregon. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
12th Amendment (1804)
the electoral college votes for the president and vice president separately. primarily effected the presidential race between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams.
Embargo Act (1807)
A law passed by congress with prohibited all export of goods from the US. French and British had been harassing American ships, sometimes raiding them. Jefferson did not want to start war, but wanted to weaken British and French to subdue their actions in the Atlantic. However, it actually hurt the American economy more than any European economy. It also helped spur New England Industry, revive the federalist party, and began the march to the War of 1812 . Was repealed in 1809.
Non-Intercourse Act (1809)
Officially opened up the US to trade with all other nations EXCEPT Britain and France. It was created in congress as a replacement of the Embargo Act of 1807.
Macon Act (1810)
also known as Macon's Bill no. 2. It reopened American trading to the whole world. However, it stipulated that if Britain ever revoked its trading restrictions, trading sanctions will continue.
Berlin (1806) and Milan (1807) Decrees
Berlin Decree - Napoleon began a paper blockade (announced but not enforced or deployed) on British Isles. Barred British ships from French-controlled ports
Milan Decree - British declared that neutral ships were subject to seizure in continental ports.
both of these decrees endangered the US's neutrality, and led to the War of 1812.
"War Hawks" (1811-1812)
People, especially from the West and South eager for war with Britain. They were fiercely nationalistic, and wished to expand US territory into all British-held territory in North America (Canada). They also wanted to squash Native American resistance on the frontier.
ex: Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun
War of 1812 (1812-1815)
Causes: land, impressment, neutral trade
Effects: weakened native population, growth of American industry, nationalism, respect from other countries
ended in stalemate-all land ended up going back where it came from
ended with treaty of ghent, signed in 1814, ratified in 1815; ended War of 1812 with cease-fire, restored pre-war territorial claims, certain issues given commissions to settle later.
Hartford Convention (1814)
held by Federalist New Englanders, who opposed the war of 1812. There was much discontent among New Englanders, who even talked about seceding from the Union. The Convention was painted by anti-Federalists to be extremely radical, but in fact, besides some extreme factions, the Convention only wished to receive financial assistance from Washington to make up for lost trade with Britain. The Convention also proposed a two thirds vote for embargoes, state admissions, or war declarations to pass through congress. To attack their fears of Southern Domination, they proposed an end to the 3/5ths compromise, and limiting presidents to only 1 term each, and to prohibit election of 2 consecutive presidents from the same state. However, this Convention came right before the declaration of Victory at New Orleans. This caused the Convention to be used as a reason to call the federalists unpatriotic, and traitors to the US. This caused the death reel of the Federalist party itself.
First Protective Tariff (1816)
After the War of 1812, British merchants hauled boatloads of cheap goods to America. The Tariff of 1816 was a 20-25% tariff on foreign goods, in order to protect the blossoming American industries. It was good for the North, where industry was, but the South, which was agricultural, was scared that Britain, in retaliation, would set up their own tariffs. However, the tariff wasn't very high, but it was the forerunner to Henry Clay's American System
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Maryland was taxing the Bank of the United States. Chief Justice John Marshall decreed that it was unconstitutional for a state to tax the federal government. Furthermore, the federal government had more power than the state. The case also solidified the validity of the Bank itself.
Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819)
New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court, under Marshall, ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
New York attempted to create a monopoly on interstate trade between New York and New Jersey. Marshall ruled that under the constitution only congress has the power to regulate interstate trade. This was a major blow to states rights
American System (1820s)
under Monroe and onward
Henry Clays 3 pronged system to promote industry.
-A strong Banking System
-a protective tariff
-Federally funded transportation network
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Missouri wanted to be admitted as a slave state, but this upset the free states of the north, because it would upset the balance of free and slave states. As a compromise, Maine was admitted as a free state, and no slave states were allowed to be founded above 36°30′.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Monroe issued this doctrine proclaiming that any European colonization in the Americas would be seen as an aggressive move and result in a direct US response. In return, the US would not intervene in European affairs. This was mostly done to protect American business interest and national security. However, the Doctrine was not always adhered to, most notably with the Spanish Occupation of Cuba.
Sectional Tariff (1824)
Also known as the Tariff of 1824, it was designed to protect American industry from cheaper British goods, such as wool, iron, cotton, and food.
Favorite Sons Election (1824)
In the election of 1824, no one won a majority of votes. The race was between Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. In the end, it came down to Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out of the race, and then urged his followers to throw their support behind Adams. Jackson and his supporters were furious at what they saw as a "corrupt bargain".
New York's Erie Canal (1817-1825)
under Monroe and Quincy Adams
a 363-mile-long artificial waterway connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825. Brought prosperity to New York City, shaped economy of region, first canal built in the new world, still in use today.
Tariff of Abominations (1828)
under Quincy Adams
The highest protective tariff in US peacetime, designed to safeguard the burgeoning US industries. However, it severely detracted from the Southern economy, leading many in the south to call it the Tariff of Abominations. The tariff attempted to keep the American System running.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828)
under Quincy Adams and Jackson
At the Exposition and Protest, John C. Calhoun proposed that all states refuse to enforce tariffs. South Carolina called a convention in 1832 and declared all tariffs null and void. This angered President Jackson, who responded with the Force Bill, which would force S. Carolina to enforce the tariffs. However, before S. Carolina could nullify the Bill, a Compromise Bill was passed, which diffused the Crisis
trying to bring democracy back to the common man. was met with much support in the south and west.
included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
Tariffs of 1832 and 1833
The tariff of 1832 piggybacked the Tariff of abominations. However, Henry Clay devised the Tariff of 1833, which gradually reduced the rates previously levied.
The Second Bank of the United States
This institution was chartered in 1816 and became a depository for federal funds and a creditor for (loaning money to) state banks. It became unpopular after being blamed for the panic of 1819, and suspicion of corruption and mismanagement haunted it until its charter expired in 1836. Jackson fought against this institution throughout his presidency, proclaiming it to be an unconstitutional extension of the federal government and a tool that rich capitalists used to corrupt American society. Andrew Jackson was very negative towards the bank for these reasons, and shut in down in 1836.
Formation of the Whig Party (1833)
Founded During the Jacksonian Era. Were anti-Jackson, and wanted a national bank. They also wanted to protect US business through high tariffs, and to help solve internal improvements through federal funding, and aid social reform through political action. However, they were divided when it came to slavery. There were the conscience Whigs (anti) and the cotton Whigs (pro).
Panic of 1837
Overspeculation in land by state government who were given paper money by the federal government
unsound financing by state government
Specie circular, made by Jackson, tried to force speculation to be paid for with gold or silver.
As a result, many banks collapsed. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress. It was short-lived and reduced the pressure on the economy
Veto of 3rd Bank of United States Bill
Henry Clay, a nationalist, wanted to create a new Bank of the United States, in order to bring monetary control back to the federal government. But Tyler, who advocated states rights, vetoed his bill and a similar bill soon after. This angered many Whigs.
Statehood of Texas (1845)
The North decried the Southern "slavocracy" (a supposed Southern conspiracy to always gain more slave land); America could not just annex Texas without a war with Mexico; overseas, Britain wanted an independent Texas to check American expansionism; Texas would be good boost for American cotton production and provide tons more land. Mexico and Texas had a longstanding feud, which was resolved by the Mexican war, which had been instigated by US annexation.
Oregon Boundary Dispute and Oregon Treaty (1844-1846)
Oregon Country was shared between the British and the Americans. However, many nationalist Americans wished for the whole territory, shouting "54 40 or fight!". they wanted to go to war with Britain for the territory. However, the Oregon Treaty was signed, cutting the territory in half at the 49th parallel
Mexican American War (1846-1848)
A fight with the Mexicans over the annexation of Texas, which the Mexicans considered their's despite the Texan Revolution. As a result, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo was signed, which gave the US a huge territory, including Texas, New Mexico, Utah, and California. The war also brought together all political factions, and a large number of volunteer soldiers.
Wilmot Proviso (1848)
A proposed bill that stated that all forms of slavery would be banned in all territory acquired from the Mexican American War. It never passed through both houses, but changed the conversation of slavery
Compromise of 1850
A series of 5 bills that addressed issues about territorial slavery conflict. They were Drafted by Whig Henry Clay and brokered by Stephen Douglas, the future designer of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
• California admitted as a free state
• Texas gave up its claims to lands disputed with New Mexico
• Slave trade in D.C. was banned, but slavery was legal
• Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession lands
• Texas was paid $10 million for land lost
• A new, tougher Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
Publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)
A milestone of abolitionist literature by Harriet Beecher Stowe. really surprised the usually nonplused northerners.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory. designed by Stephen A. Douglas. Originally done in order to open the Western Territories up to settlement by farmers and make a railroad feasible. However, the problem of popular sovereignty muddled the situation, causing "Bloody Kansas"
Opening of Japanese Trade (1853)
Under the Treaty of Kanagawa, some Japanese ports were open to foreign trade. This was thanks to the handling of Commodore Perry and the Tokugawa Shogunate. An American council was also established in Japan. Japan's seclusion was beginning to wane.
Height of the Underground Railorad (1850-1860)
under Fillmore, Pierce, and Buchanan
A secret group of individuals that secreted escaped slaves north to Canada. Members of abolitionist community usually participants. Reached its height right before the Civil War. All in all, approximately 100,000 slaves were transported to safety using this method.
Bleeding Kansas (1854-1861)
under Pierce and Buchanan
Was a sequence of violent events involving Free-States and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" elements that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.
Dred Scott Decision (1857)
Dred Scott was a slave that had resided with his master in the Free territory of Illinois for 5 years. He sued for his freedom on the grounds that he lived in a free state. The Supreme court decided that, since Scott was African American, he was not a citizen, and therefore could not sue for his own freedom in a Federal court.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
A series of seven debates for the senatorship of Illinois. They argued about such things as popular sovereignty and slavery. Douglas won the debates, but Lincoln made a considerable impression.
Civil War (1861-1865)
causes: the economic and social differences between north and south, states v. federal rights, battle of slave and non slave states, abolition movement, the election of abraham lincoln
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
In 1863, at the height of the Civil War, Lincoln issues this piece of legislature, calling for the immediate freedom of all slaves in the Rebel Confederate States. However, this move was merely symbolic, for it only brought moral victory to the Union side. Because of the proclamation, the view of the war changed, and many European powers, eager to step in and support the south, hastily retracted support. It marked the beginning of the end for the south
Homestead Act (1862)
Morill Act (1862)
Ten Percent Plan (1863)
Lincoln's Assassination (1865)
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