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the money or goods that a woman bought for her husband when married

Greek fire

a flammable liquid that was sprayed over enemy ships or hurled at them in cartridges


bishops of empire cities


Greek word meaning "portrait"


people who felt that the presence of icons constituted idol worship and should be suppressed

iconoclastic controversy

debate between opponents and defenders of icons in the Byzantine Church; one of the issues that led to the split of the Christian church in 1054


an opinion that conflicted with church doctrine


barring a person from being a member of the church and excluding him or her from sacred church ceremonies


pictures or designs composed of inlaid pieces of stone, glass, or enamel

Hagia Sophia

the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian

corpus juris civilis

the body of civil law in the Byzantine Empire created by Justinian's jurists; composed of the Code, Digest, and Institutes


grassy largely treeless plain


Russian nobles

Pravda Russkaia

the first Russian law code


the chief bishop


zone with great forests


Russian word for caesar

"third Rome"


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