Terms in this set (49)
how carbon is passed from from rocks, soils, oceans, air, and organisms
what does the keeling curve say
that carbon dioxide concentrations cycle up and down over a year ---- and that atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide show a steady increase of the last 50 years
the indication that two events occur together - like the increase of CO2 and human activities like burning fossil fuels
the relationship in which one event causes another
what is the principal source of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
fossil fuel burning by industrialized societies
places that hold carbon
the amt of carbon contained in the total mass of organisms living on land
what reservoir has the most carbon
marine sediments and sedimentary rock reservoir
the break down of rocks, soil, and minerals - chemical reactions break the bonds that hold the rocks together - water helps the reactions bc it's usually needed for most reactions
the rates at which carbon flows from one reservoir to another
does chemical weathering remove or add CO2?
the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues. Such tissues are called mineralized tissues.
carbon is an effective greenhouse gas, meaning it allows incoming solar radiation to reach earth's surface but traps heat that is reemitted from land and sea
what drives the long-term carbon cycle?
volcanic emissions and the oxidation of ancient organic matter, subduction carries CaCO3 and organic matter down to the mantle, providing a source of carbon for volcanoes that will return CO2 to the atmosphere, the amt of organic matter buried in sediments effectively reflects the excess of photosynthesis over respiration,
what takes away CO2?
weathering of ancient rocks removes CO2 from the atmosphere and deposits it as CaCO3
generate organic compounds that will provide food for other organisms in the local environment - photosynthesizers
organisms that eat primary producers
those that break down dead tissues
those that graze on plants or photosynthetic microorganisms
how is carbon returned to the atmosphere?
thru respiration of fungi and other decomposers that break down dead tissues once carbon is passed from one consumer to another
the linear transfer of carbon from one organism to another
the complexity of interactions within the carbon cycle
what are examples of decomposers
bacteria, fungi, and certain animals consume wastes and dead organisms, making their carbon and other nutrients available once again to primary producers
what are examples of primary producers
plants, algae, and photosynthetic bactera - they generate organic molecules by photosynthesis
what are primary consumers (otherwise known as grazers)
those that obtain carbon by eating primary producers
what are secondary and tertiary consumers?
those are the organisms that obtain their carbon by eating primary consumers
what are trophic pyramids?
diagrams showing the amt of energy available at each level to feed the next
because of waste, work, and heat dissipation, what percentage of the energy available in biomass at one level gets incorporated into biomass at the next level?
why is there a seasonal oscillation of the concentration of atmospheric CO2?
there is an imbalance between photosynthesis and respiration in the summer and winter months - plants don't get energy from the sunlight to take up CO2 to fix carbon
after remaining steady for thousands of years, when did carbon dioxide start to increase?
in the mid 1800s, the time of the Industrial Revolution
what governs the long-term carbon cycle?
physical processes - volcanism, subduction, oxidation of organic matter, amt of organic matter buried in sediments
what are the 4 most important reservoirs of carbon?
organisms, soil, sedimentary rocks, the oceans
over the past hundreds of millions of years, what are the major influences of the fluxes of CO2?
the movements of earth's plates and the evolution of new life-forms are major players in the carbon cycle
eat primary produces - they are called primary consumers - others are called secondary consumers
why do communities contain a much greater biomass of producers than consumers?
it's because the movement of energy thru communities is inefficient --- only 10-15% of carbon is transferred when organisms are consumed
Name two processes that drive the short-term carbon cycle
respiration and photosynthesis
Draw and explain the curve representing changing atmospheric levels of CO2 over the course of a year
the curve is higher (y axis is amt of carbon dioxide) is the spring a
Draw and explain the curve representing changing atmospheric levels of C02 over the past 150 years
before the mid 1800s, the industrial revolution, there was a steady amt of CO2 but afterwards there was an increase of CO2 due to the increase of fossil fuel burning
Explain one way by which the source of the increase in CO2 in the atmosphere can be determiend
you can measure... the amount... of carbon 14... because we know its half life..
Name processes that influence the long-term carbon cycle.
subduction, volcanism, oxidation of organic matter, amt of organic matter buried in sediments
Draw and explain the curve representing changing atmospheric levels of CO2 over the last 400,000 years
Trace the flow of carbon and energy thru biological communities
primary producers - primary consumers - secondary and tertiary consumers - decomposers
how do we measure atmospheric CO2 levels with stomata, the small pores on leaf surfaces?
the stomata, the small pores on leaf surfaces, decrease in density as atmospheric CO2 levels decrease
what are 4 facts about the lowest level of the trophic pyramid?
it contains the most energy, carbon, biomass, and has phytoplankton (in aquatic environments)
150 yrs ago, man made CO2 was introduced PRIMARILY thru, _____. now, ____ is the main human-made contributor to CO2
deforestation; burning fossil fuels
how are the short-term and long-term carbon cycles linked?
by the fact that some of the carbon contained in organic molecules in plants is incorporated into sedimentary rocks or oil; it is not immediately reintroduced back into the atmosphere
why did CO2 decrease in the paleozoic era?
photosynthetic woody plants were introduced
if photosynthesis and respiration were completely equivalent..
oxygen would decrease
Glacial ice core data can provide scientists with information about atmospheric CO2 levels for the last 500 million years of Earth's history.
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