34 terms

Cell injury, adaptation, and death

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What is the underlying cause of pathology
Etiology
What is the mechanism (sequence of events) of development of pathology
Pathogenesis
What is structural alterations induced in cells, tissues and/or organs, which may be gross, microscopic, or ultrastructural
morphologic changes
What is a general term used to denote an altered steady state achieved by a cell subjected to stresses and may include hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, and metaplasia
Cellular Adaptation
When a cell that is stressed to perform an increased amount of work adapts by enlarging
Hypertrophy
What is an increase in the number of cell
Hyperplasia
What is a decrease in the number of cell
Atrophy
What is the replacement of a normal adult cell type by another type, not normal for the location, that is reversible
Metaplasia
All the following: occurs after irreversible cell injury, swelling of the cell, protein denaturation, breakdown of membranes, swelling and breakdown of organelles, and rupture of the cell, releasing cellular components are example of
Necrosis
Programmed cell death, shrinkage of the cell, and fragmentation of the cell into membrane-bound pieces with no release of contents are examples of
Apoptosis
What are the 4 most vulnerable cellular system
Plasma membrane, ATP generation by mitochondria, protein synthesis, and integrity of genome
What are non-specific channels across the inner membrane of mitochondrias the allows the Hydrogen ions to flow back into the matrix without passing through ATP synthase
MPT(mitochondrial permeability transition)
What molecule can be released from a damaged mitochondria that triggers apoptosis
Cytochrome C
How does the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation affect ATP, glycolysis, pH, and glycogen
It decrease ATP, glycogen and pH, it increase Glycolysis
During oxidative phosphorylation molecular____________is reduced to______
Oxygen
Water
What occurs when CO2(carbon dioxide) replaces O2(oxygen) on hemoglobin
Oxygen deprivation
Disuse, loss of innervations, diminished blood supply, inadequate nutrition, loss of hormonal stimulation, and aging are all causes of
Atrophy
Increased work load, and increased hormonal stimulation are all causes of
hypertrophy
This usually occurs with hypertrophy due to increased hormonal stimulation, compensatory, and mutation in signaling pathway molecules
Hyperplasia
Heterophagy, autophagy, lipofuscin are the 3 types of
Lysosomes
Which lysosome digest substances taken into the cell by endocytosis
Heterophagy
Which lysosome digest uneeded or damaged organelles
Autophagy
Which lysosome are old and are usually non-dividing
Lipofuscin
Hypertrophy of the sER is commonly seen in livers cells that
Detoxify
What is the possible cause of enlarged and abnormally shaped mitochondria that becomes swollen and lose its cristae
Nutrient deficiencies and alcoholism
In pathology "RED" is a sign of___________.
Death
What type of necrosis forms pus and becomes inflamed and very common in wounds
Liquefactive
What type of necrosis does TB cause
Caseous Necrosis
What type of tissue does the lining of smokers' airways change into
Non-ciliated stratified squamous epithelium
Is there swelling or shrinkage of cell with the process of apotosis
Shrinkage
Is there swelling or shrinkage of cell with the process of necrosis
Swelling
True/False: In necrosis, the cell is fragmented into membrane-bound pieces with no release of contents, while in apoptosis there a rupture of the cell, releasing cellular components
False
What cause clumping of nuclear chromatin
Decrease in pH
What does Increase in cytosolic calcium during cell injury triggers that damages nuclear chromatin
Endonuclease