A telos is an end or purpose, in a fairly constrained sense used by philosophers such as Aristotle. It
derives from the Greek meaning "end," "purpose," or "goal." It is also the root of the term *****"teleology,"
which is the study of purposiveness,***** or the study of objects with a view to their aims, purposes, or
Teleology figures centrally in Aristotle's biology and in his theory of causes. It is central to nearly all
philosophical theories of history, such as those of Hegel and Marx. One running debate in modern
philosophy of biology is to what extent teleological language (as in the "purposes" of various organs or
life-processes) is unavoidable, or is it simply a shorthand for ideas that can ultimately be spelled out
In contrast to telos, techne is the rational method involved in producing an object or accomplishing a
goal or objective; however, the two methods are not mutually exclusive in principle.
In literary theory, textuality comprises all of the attributes that distinguish the communicative content
under analysis as an object of study. It is associated with structuralism and post-structuralism.
The word "text" arose within structuralism as a replacement for the older idea in literary criticism of the
"work," which is always complete and deliberately authored. A text must necessarily be thought of as
incomplete, indeed as missing something crucial that provides the mechanics of understanding. The text
is always partially hidden; one word for the hidden part in literary theory is the "subtext."
Textuality can be seen, heard, read, and interacted with. Each of the three forms of Medium (print,
electronic, and oral) have a different form of Textuality that reflect the way the sensory modalities are
stimulated. An example of Textuality in the oral medium is the sound itself, while Textuality in the
electronic medium is the interactivity of a website, or visual of a specific television show. An example of
Textuality in the print medium is the physicality of a book. You will note that a text needn't be constructed
with word. The Mona Lisa painting, for example, can be considered a "text" worthy of analysis.
Intertextuality is the shaping of a text's meaning by another text. It is the interconnection between
similar or related works of literature that reflect and influence an audience's interpretation of the text.
Intertextual figures include: allusion, quotation, calque, plagiarism, translation, pastiche and parody.
Intertextuality is a literary device that creates an "interrelationship between texts" and generates
related understanding in separate works. These references are made to influence the reader and add
layers of depth to a text, based on the readers' prior knowledge and understanding. Intertextuality is a
literary discourse strategy utilized by writers in novels, poetry, theatre and even in non-written texts
(such as performances and digital media). Examples of intertextuality are an author's borrowing and
transformation of a prior text, and a reader's referencing of one text in reading another.
Intertextuality does not require citing or referencing punctuation (such as quotation marks) and is often
mistaken for plagiarism. Intertextuality can be produced in texts using a variety of functions including
allusion, quotation and referencing. However, intertextuality is not always intentional and can be
utilized inadvertently. As philosopher William Irwin wrote, the term "has come to have almost as many
meanings as users, from those faithful to Julia Kristeva's original vision to those who simply use it as a
stylish way of talking about allusion and influence."
A pastiche is a work of visual art, literature, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of
the work of one or more other artists. Unlike parody, pastiche celebrates, rather than mocks, the
work it imitates.
In musical theatre, pastiche is often an indispensable tool for evoking the sounds of a particular era
for which a show is set. For the 1971 musical Follies, a show about a reunion of performers from a
musical revue set between the World Wars, Stephen Sondheim wrote over a dozen songs in the style of
Broadway songwriters of the 1920s and 1930s.
The word pastiche is a French cognate of the Italian noun pasticcio, which is a pâté or pie-filling mixed
from diverse ingredients. Metaphorically, pastiche and pasticcio describe works that are either
composed by several authors, or that incorporate stylistic elements of other artists' work. Pastiche is an
example of eclecticism in art.
Allusion is not pastiche. A literary allusion may refer to another work, but it does not reiterate it.
Moreover, allusion requires the audience to share in the author's cultural knowledge. Both allusion and
pastiche are mechanisms of intertextuality.
The emerging church is a Christian movement of the late 20th and early 21st centuries that crosses a
number of theological boundaries. Emerging churches can be found throughout the globe, predominantly
in North America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Africa, while others worship in traditional
Proponents believe the movement transcends the "modernist" labels of "conservative" and "liberal,"
calling the movement "a conversation" to emphasize its developing and decentralized nature, its vast
range of standpoints, and its commitment to dialogue. Participants seek to live their faith in what they
believe to be a "postmodern" society. What those involved in the conversation mostly agree on is their
disillusionment with the organized and institutional church and their support for the deconstruction of
modern Christian worship, modern evangelism, and the nature of modern Christian community.
Emerging churches are fluid, hard to define, and varied; they contrast themselves with what has gone
before in referring to the latter as the "inherited church." Key themes of the emerging church are
couched in the language of reform, praxis-oriented lifestyles, post-evangelical thought, and incorporation
or acknowledgment of political and postmodern elements.