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AP US History II Midterm Review

cards 751-1250 from http://apstudent.com
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Texas v. White
1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
Whiskey Ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
"Waving the bloody shirt"
The practice of reviving unpleasant memories from the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved before the House a bloodstained nightshirt of a carpetbagger flogged by Klan members.
Liberal Republicans: Carl Schurz, Horace Greeley
Schurz and Greeley were liberal republicans - they believed in civil service reform, opposed corruption, wanted lower tariffs, and were lenient toward the South.
Panic of 1873, depression
Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inflation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work. Federal troops were called in to end the strike.
Election of 1876: candidates, electoral commission
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
Compromise of 1877
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
Greenbacks
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
Ohio Idea
1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.
Legal Tender cases
The Supreme Court debated whether it was constitutional for the federal government to print paper money (greenbacks).
Species Resumption Act
1879 - Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable for gold, but no one wanted to redeem them for face gold value. Because paper money was much more convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.
Greenbacks
Labor Party - Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.
Chester A. Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
Election of 1884: James G. Blaine, Grover Cleveland
Democrat - Cleveland - 219 electoral, 4,911,017 popular. Republican - Blaine - 182 electoral, 4,848,334 popular. Butler - 175,370 popular. St. John - 150,369 popular. Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefitted from the split in the Republican Party.
Stalwarts
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
Roscoe Conkling (1829-1888)
A Stalwart leader and part of the political machine.
Half-breeds
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
Mugwumps
Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word for "chief" and was used in a N.Y. Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans.
"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
James Gillespie Blaine said that the Irish Catholics were people of "rum, Romanism, and rebellion." It offended many people and cost Blaine the election.
High tariffs
Levied against imported and manufactured goods, once again hurting the South and the economy to raise money for the federal government and help Northern industries.
Treasury surplus
During the Reconstruction, the treasury was in deficit, so it cut back spending to build up the treasury and ended with a surplus.
Pensions, Garfield
Congress granted pensions to all veterans with any disability for any reason. Cleveland vetoed it, which contributed to his not being reelected. He didn't think Confederate veterans should receive pensions.
Secret ballot / Australian ballot
First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates names were to be printed on the same white piece of paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.
Cleveland's 1887 Annual Address
Emphasized civil service reform, and fought high tariffs.
Election of 1888: candidates, issues
Republican - Harrison - 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Democrat - Cleveland - 168 electoral, 5,540,050 popular. Fisk - 250,125 popular. Harrison said he would protect American industry with a high tariff. Issues were civil service reform and tariffs.
Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901), Billion Dollar Congress, Czar Reed
Harrison: Republican, ran against Cleveland, became the 23rd president. Billion Dollar Congress: The first session where Congress spent over $1 billion. Czar Reed: The nickname of Thomas Braket, Speaker of the House 1889-1891. He tried to increase the power of the Speaker.
McKinley Tariff
A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
Election of 1892: candidates, issues
Democrat - Grover Cleveland and V.P. Adlai E. Stevenson - 5,554,414 popular; 227 electoral votes. Republican - Benjamin Harrison and V.P. Whitecar Reed - 145 electoral votes. National Prohibition Convention - John Brownwell and V.P. James B. Cranfil. Socialist Labor Convention - Simon Wing and V.P. Charles H. Machett. Republicans wanted a high protective tariff, but Democrats opposed it. Democrats secured a majority in both houses.
Morgan bond transaction
John Pierpont Morgan took over the Susquehanna and Albany railroads. He won the confidence of European investors and used them for investment capital. He then took over steel companies and bought Carnegie's interests in steel. This was the largest personal financial transaction in U.S. history. Morgan combined the companies to form the U.S. Steel Company, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Eased the Panic of 1873.
Wilson
Gorman Tariff - Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.
Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company, 1895
The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).
Dingley Tariff
Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne - Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.
Laissez-faire
A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.
Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
Promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.
Union Pacific Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.
"Credit Mobilier"
A construction company owned by the larger stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad. After Union Pacific received the government contract to build the transcontinental railraod, it "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging the federal government nearly twice the actual cost of the project. When the scheme was discovered, the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation. This percipitated the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.
"Robber Barons"
The owners of big businesses who made large amounts of money by cheating the federal government.
John D. Rockefeller
Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.
Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
Horizontal consolidation
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick
Business tycoons, they made their money in the steel industry. Philanthropists.
Vertical consolidation
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product, such as an auto maker that also owns its own steel mills, rubber plantations, and other companies that supply its parts. This allows the company to lower its costs of production and drive its competition out of business.
Charles Schwab (1862-1939)
Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.
Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
Alexander Graham Bell
1876 - Invented the telephone.
Leland Stanford (1824-1893)
Multimillionaire railroad builder, he founded Stanford University in memory of his only son, who died young. He founded the Central Pacific Railroad.
James J. Hill, Great Northern Railroad
Empire builder, he tried to monopolize the northern railroads.
Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York Central Railroad
A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.
Bessemer process
Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.
U.S. Steel Corporation, Elbert H. Gary
Gary was corporate lawyer who became the U.S. Steel Corporation president in 1898. U.S. Steel was the leading steel producer at the time.
Mesabi Range
A section of low hills in Minnesota owned by Rockefeller in 1887, it was a source of iron ore for steel production.
Pierpont Morgan
Financier who arranged the merger which created the U.S. Steel Corporation, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich. (Vertical consolidation).
Gustavus Swift
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
Phillip Armour (1832-1901)
Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.
James B. Duke
Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.
Andrew Mellon (1855-1937)
One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.
"Stock watering"
Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.
Jay Cooke Company
The Panic of 1873 was caused by the failure of this company, which had invested too heavily in railroads and lost money when the railroads cheated the federal government.
Jay Gould and Jim Fiske
Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.
Pools
Agreement between railroads to divide competition. Equalization was achieved by dividing traffic.
Rebates
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
Trusts
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Holding companies
Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.
Fourteenth Amendment's "Due Process Clause"
No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law. (The accused must have a trial.).
Munn v. Illinois
1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates for grain was a constitutional exercise of the state's power to regulate business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
Long haul, short haul
Different railroad companies charged separate rates for hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile for a short haul than a long one.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
E.C. Knight Company case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress.
National Labor Union
Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.
William Sylvis
Leader of the National Labor Union.
Knights of Labor: Uriah Stephens, Terence Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.
Samuel Gompers
President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
Collective bargaining
Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.
Injunction
A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something.
Strikes
The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.
Boycotts
People refuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.
Closed shop
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
Black list
A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
Yellow Dog contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
Company unions
People working for a particular company would gather and as a unit demand better wages, working conditions and hours.
Great Railroad Strike
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
John Peter Altgeld
Governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.
Homestead Strike
The workers at a steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, forcing the owner to close down. Armed guards were hired to protect the building. The strikers attacked for five months, then gave in to peace demands.
Pinkertons
Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.
Pullman Strike, 1894
Started by enraged workers who were part of George Pullman's "model town", it began when Pullman fired three workers on a committee. Pullman refused to negotiate and troops were brought in to ensure that trains would continue to run. When orders for Pullman cars slacked off, Pullman cut wages, but did not cut rents or store prices.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Richard Olney
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
Danbury Hatters Strike
Workers in a hat-making factory went on strike.
George Washington Plunkitt
He was head of Tammany Hall and believed in "Honest Graft".
"Honest Graft"
Justified bribery or cheating.
Boss Tweed
Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".
Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
"New Imigration"
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Dillingham Commission Report
1911 - Congressional commission set up to investigate demands for immigration restriction. It's report was a list of complains against the "new immigrants.".
Streetcar suburbs
The appearance of the streetcar made living within the heart of the city unnecessary. People began moving to the edges of the cities and commuting to work by streetcar. Led to growth of suburbs.
Tenements
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Denis Kearney
Irish immigrant who settled in San Fransicso and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chineseworkers who worked for less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
Chinese Exclusion Law
1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immagrants who would work for less pay.
American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
Literacy tests
Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English-speakers, so they could not pass. Meant to discourage immigration.
James Bryce, The American Commonwealth
Opposed the Nativist sentiment and promoted the "melting pot" idea of American culture.
John A. Roebling (1806-1869), Brooklyn Bridge
Roebling pioneered the development of suspension bridges and designed the Brooklyn Bridge, but died before its construction was completed.
Louis Sullivan (1856-1914)
Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
Ashcan School
Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.
Armory Show
1913 - The first art show in the U.S., organized by the Ashcan School. Was most Americans first exposure to European Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, and caused a modernist revolution in American art.
Anthony Comstock (1844-1915)
Social reformer who worked against obscenity.
Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue of creation.
Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.
William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other
Economist and sociologist.
Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1889)
Minister who worked against slavery in Kansas Border War, promoted civil service reform.
Rev. Russel Conwell, "Acres of Diamonds"
Baptist preacher whose famous speech said that hard work and thrift would lead to success.
Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899)
Evangelist who preached the social gospel.
Rev. Josiah Strong
Enivisioned a "final competition of races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.
Lester Frank Ward
Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dynamic Sociology.
Social gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
Salvation Army, YMCA
Provided food, housing, and supplies for the poor and unemployed.
Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.
Rerum Novarum
1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.
Charles Sheldon, In His Steps Proofed Through Here
A very popular collection of sermons which encouraged young people to emulate Christ.
Mary Baker Eddy (1871-1910)
Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.
Chautauqua Movement
One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.
Johns Hopkins University
A private university which emphasized pure research. It's entrance requirements were unusually strict -- applicants needed to have already earned a college degree elsewhere in order to enroll.
Charles W. Elliot, Harvard University
He was the president of Harvard University, and started the policy of offering elective classes in addition to the required classes.
Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)
America's greatest theoretical scientist, he studied thermodynamics and physical chemistry.
Morril Act
1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building colleges.
Land grant colleges: A&M, A&T, A&I
These were colleges built on the land designated by the Morril Act of 1862.
Hatch Act
1887 - Provided for agricultural experimentation stations in every state to improve farming techniques.
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards, 2000-1887
1888 - Utopian novel which predicted the U.S. woudl become a socialist state in which the government would own and oversee the means of production and would unite all people under moral laws.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress.
The single tax
A flat tax proposed by Henry George. (A flat tax is one in which every person pays the same amount, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.).
"Gilded Age"
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Nouveau riche
French for "new rich." Refered to people who had become rich through business rather than through having been born into a rich family. The nouveau riche made up much of the American upper classof the late 1800s.
William James
Developed the philosophy of pragmatism. One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy.
Pragmatism
A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.
Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831-1902), editor of The Nation
Political writer who founded The Nation magazine, which called for reform.
William Dean Howells (1837-1920)
Editor of the Atlantic Monthly, and a champion of the realist movement in fiction writing.
Henry James (1843-1916)
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw.".
Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
Writer who introduced grim realism to the American novel. His major work, The Red Badge of Courage is a psychological study of a Civil War soldier. Crane had never been near a war when he wrote it, but later he was a reporter in the Spanish-American War.
Hamlin Garland
His best-known work is Middle Board, an autobiographical story of the frustrations of life. One of the first authors to write accurately and sympathetically about Native Americans.
Bret Harte
Wrote humorous short stories about the American West, popularized the use of regional dialects as a literary device.
Mark Twain
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County," and stories about the American West.
James McNeill Whistler
(1834-1903) A member of the realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric. Best known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey, No.1, also known asWhistler's Mother.
Winslow Homer
A Realist painter known for his seascapes of New England.
Joseph Pullitzer
A muckraker who designed the modern newspaper format (factual articles in one section, editorial and opinion articles in another section).
William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Alice Paul
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.
Francis Willard
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
Carry A. Nation (1846-1901)
A prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known for attacking saloons herself with a hatchet.
Clara Barton
Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War, founded the American Red Cross is 1881. See card # 651 for more information.
Mississippi Plan
1890 - In order to vote in Mississippi, citizens had to display the receipt which proved they had paid the poll tax and pass a literacy test by reading and interpreting a selection from the Constitution. Prevented blacks, who were generally poor and uneducated, from voting.
Bourbons / Redeemers
A religious movement in the South.
"New South," Henry Grady (1850-1889)
1886 - His speech said that the South wanted to grow, embrace industry, and eliminate racism and Confederate separatist feelings. Was an attempt to get Northern businessmen to invest in the South.
Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908)
Wrote the "Uncle Remis" stories, which promoted black stereotypes and used them for humor.
Slaughterhouse cases
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Civil Rights cases
1883 - These state supreme court cases ruled that Constitutional amendments against discrimination applied only to the federal and state governments, not to individuals or private institutions. Thus the government could not order segregation, but restaurants, hotels, and railroads could. Gave legal sanction to Jim Crow laws.
Lynching
The practice of an angry mob hanging a percieved criminal without regard to due process. In the South, blacks who did not behave as the inferiors to whites might be lynched by white mobs.
Booker T. Washington (1857-1915), Tuskegee Institute
(1856-1915) An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881 he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
"The Atlanta Compromise"
Booker T. Washington's speech encouraged blacks to seek a vocational education in order to rise above their second-class status in society.
George Washington Carver (1860-1943)
A black chemist and director of agriculture at the Tuskegee Institute, where he invented many new uses for peanuts. He believed that education was the key to improving the social status of blacks.
W. E. B. DuBois (1868-1963)
A black orator and eassayist. Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories, and took a militant position on race relations.
"Talented Tenth"
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson, "Separate but equal"
1886 - Plessy was a black man who had been instructed by the NAACP to refuse to ride in the train car reserved for blacks. The NAACP hoped to force a court decision on segregation. However, the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and the NAACP, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality.
Jim Crow laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.
Disenfranchisement, Williams v. Mississippi
1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
Grandfather clause
Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks.
Niagra Movement
A group of black and white reformers, including W. E. B. DuBois. They organized the NAACP in 1909.
Springfield, Illinois riot
1908 - A riot broke out between blacks and whites over racial equality.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals.
"The Crisis"
The NAACP's pamphlet, which borrowed the name from Thomas Paine's speech about the American Revolution.
Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle portion of the Louisiana Purchase region.
Homestead Act
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Oliver H. Kelley
Worked in the Department of Agriculture and lead the Granger Movement.
Granger Movement
1867 - Nation Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relief for debtors. Although technically not a political party, local granges led to the creation of a number of political parties, which eventually joined with the growing labor movement to form the Progressive Party.
Barbed wire, Joseph Glidden
He marketed the first barbed wire, solving the problem of how to fence cattle in the vast open spaces of the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the American West.
Indian Appropriations Act
1851 - The U.S. government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians onto reservations.
Plains Indians
Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
Chivington Massacre
November 28, 1861 - Colonel Chivington and his troops killed 450 Indians in a friendly Cheyenne village in Colorado.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
1876 - General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
Chief Joseph
Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
Battle of Wounded Knee
1890 - The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor
A muckracker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
Also called the General Allotment Act, it tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to forestall growing Indian proverty, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to speculators.
Frederick Jackson Turner, Frontier Thesis
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Safety Valve Thesis
Proposed by Frederick Jackson Turner to explain America's unique non-European culture, held that people who couldn't succeed in eastern society could move west for cheap land and a new start.
Comstock Lode
Rich deposits of silver found in Nevada in 1859.
"Crime of 1873"
Referred to the coinage law of 1873 which eliminated silver money from circulation. Name given by people who opposed paper money.
Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Serman Silver Purchase Act
1890 - Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts of silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inflated prices. The introduction of large quantities of overvalued silver into the ecomony lead to a run on the ferderal gold reserves, leading to the Panic of 1893. Repealed in 1893.
Bimetalism
Use of two metals, gold and silver, for currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment of the Gold Standard Act.
"Coin" Harvey
Proposed a plan for bimettalism with a standard of 16 to 1, with gold worth 16 times as much as silver.
Free Silver
Movement for using silver in all aspects of currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.
Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
Coxey's army
1893 - Group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief. Government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.
Repeal of Serman's Silver Purchase Act
1893 - Act repealed by President Cleveland to protect gold reserves.
Farmer's Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
Ocala Demands
1890 - The leaders of what would later become the Populist Party held a national convention in Ocala, Florida and adopted a platform advocating reforms to help farmers.
Populist Party platform, Omaha platform
Offically named the People's Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wrote a platform for the 1892 election (running for president-James Weaver, vice president-James Field) in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers. The part was split between South and West.
Tom Watson
A leader of the Populist Party in the South.
James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
"Pitchfork" Ben Tillman
A senator from South Carolina, he compared Cleveland's betrayal of the Democratic party to Judas' betrayal of Jesus.
Mary Ellen Lease
A speaker for the Populist Party and the Farmer's Alliance. One of the founders of the Populist Party.
"Sockless" Jerry Simpson
A rural reformer who ran against Mary Lease in the Populist Part election in Kansas.
Ignatius Donnely
A leader of the Populist Party in Minnesota.
Williams Jenning Bryan
Three-time candidate for president for the Democratic Party, nominated because of support from the Populist Party. He never won, but was the most important Populist in American history. He later served as Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State (1913-1915).
"Cross of Gold" Speech
Given by Bryan on June 18, 1896. He said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold", referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.
Election of 1896: candidates and issues
William McKinley-Republican, North, industry and high tariffs. Williams Bryan-Democrat, West and South, farmers and low tariffs. The main issues were the coinage of silver and protective tariffs.
Marcus Hanna
Leader of the Republican Party who fought to get William McKinley the Republican nomination for president.
Gold Standard Act
1900 - This was signed by McKinley. It stated that all paper money would be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold gold in reserve in case people decided they wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver Certificates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to circulate.
Supreme Court cases
Legal Tender cases, Minor vs. Happensett, Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois, E. C. Knight Company case, Pollock v. Farmer's Loan & Trust Company, and In Re Debs.
Supreme Court: Legal Tender cases
1870, 1871 - A series of cases that challenged whether the paper "greenbacks" issued during the Civil War constituted legal tender, i.e., whether they were valid currency. The Supreme Court declared that greenbacks were not legal tender and their issuance had bee unconstitutional.
Supreme Court: Minor v. Happensett
1875 - Limited the right to vote to men.
Supreme Court: Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states can control trade in their states, but cannot regulate railroads coming through them. Congress has exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce. States cannot regulate or place restrictions on businesses which only pass through them, such as interstate transportation.
E. C. Knight Company case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress. It gave E. C. Knight a legal monopoly because it did not affect trade.
Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company
1895 - The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).
In Re Debs
1894 - Eugene Debs organised the Pullman strike. A federal court found him guilty of restraint of trade, stopping US mail, and disobeying a government injunction to stop the strike. He later ran for president as a candidate of the Social Democratic Party.
James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism
The 1884 nomination for the Rebublican presidential candidate. Pan-Americanism stated that events in the Americans affected the U.S. and we thus had reason to intervene.
Venezuelan boundary dispute
Dispute between the U.S. and Britain involving the point at which the Venezuela / Columbia border was drawn. Britain eventually won the dispute.
Bering sea seal controversy
A dispute between the U.S. and Russia involving who could hunt seals in the Bering Sea.
"Yellow journalism"
Term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolf Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
Josiah Strong, Our Country
In this book, Strong argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon.
Captain Alfred Thayler Mahan
In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on.
Pago Pago, Samoa
1878 - The U.S. gained the strategic port Pago Pago in Samoa for use in refueling U.S. warships overseas. It was part of building an international military presence.
Virginius
1873 - Spain and U.S. government got into a squabble over the Cuban-owned Virginius, which had been running guns. Spain executed several Americans who had been on board. The telegraph was used to negotiate a truce. The incident was played up by the yellow journalists.
Reconcentration Policy
When Cubans started to rebel, Spaniards begain to reorganize prisoners into labor camps.
De Lome Letter
Written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lôme, it was stolen from the mail and delivered to Hearst. He had called McKinley weak and bitter. It was played up by the yellow journalists.
Maine explodes
February 15, 1898 - An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt
In charge of the navy when the Maine crisis occurred, he had rebuilt the navy and tried to start a war with Cuba.
Commodore Dewey, Manila Bay
May 1, 1898 - Commodore Dewey took his ship into Manila Bay, in the Philippine Islands, and attacked the Spanish Pacific fleet there. The U.S. had been planning to take this strategic port in the Pacific. Dewey caught the Spanish at anchor in the bay and sank or crippled their entire fleet.
Cleveland and Hawaii
President Cleveland did not want to forcibly annex Hawaii, so he waited five years to do so. McKinley finally did it. Cleveland felt the annexation overstepped the federal government's power.
Queen Liliuokalani
Queen of Hawaii who gave the U.S. naval rights to Pearl Harbor in 1887. Deposed by American settlers in 1893.
Annexation of Hawaii
By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.
Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt formed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to fight in the Spanish- American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
Treaty of Paris
Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The U.S. gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
American Anti-Imperialist League
A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to differences on domestic issues. Isolationists.
Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba
The U.S. acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War.
Walter Reed
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War.
Insular cases
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
Platt Amendment
A rider to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, it specified the conditions under which the U.S. could intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, and provided that Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence. Its provisions where later incorporated into the Cuban Constitution.
Protectorate
A weak country under the control and protection of a stronger country. Puerto Rico, Cuba, etc. were protectorates of the U.S.
Aguinaldo, Philippine Insurrection
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence.
Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door notes
September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
Spheres of influence
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion of all others. Spheres of influence appeared primarily in the East, and also in Africa.
Boxer Rebellion
1900 - a secret Chinese society called the Boxers because their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislations in Beijing.
Extraterritoriality
In the 1920's, China wated an end to the exemption of foreigners accused of crimes from China's legal jurisdiction.
Most Favored Nation Clause
Part of RTA Act in 1834, allowed a nation to make a special agreement with another nation and give them a preferential low tariff rate.
Election of 1900: candidates, issues
Republican, William McKinley defeated Democrate, Williams Bryan. The issue was imperialism.
Roosevelt's Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt said, "walk softly and carry a big stick." In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen. It was his foreign policy in Latin America.
U.S.S. Oregon
Warship involved in Spanish-American blockade in Cuba in 1898. Went from Cuba to the Philippines by going around the Southern tip of South America. Showed that we need a better route between the Atlantic and the Pacific.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
Hay-Herran Treaty
Kept the purchase price of the canal strip in Panama the same but enlarged the area from 6 to 10 miles.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
Panama Revolution
The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
Panama Canal
Buit to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster.
Goethals and Gorgas
1906 - Army colonels who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal.
Venezuelan Crisis
1902 - England, Germany and Italy had blockaded Venezuelan ports because Latin American countries failed to make payments on debts owed to foreign banks. U.S. invoked the Monroe Doctrine and pressured the European powers to back off.
Drago Doctrine
Argentine jurist, Luis Drago, proposed that European countries could not use force to collect debts owed by countries in the Americas. They could not blockade South American ports. Adopted as part of the Hague Convention in 1907.
Roosevelt Corollary
U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
"Colossus of the North"
1906 - Relations between U.S. and Canada including a reciprocal trade agreement. Tight relations made the U.S. and Canada a "Colossus.".
Dominican Republic
In 1905, the U.S. imposed financial restrictions upon this Caribbean nation. Part of making sure Latin America traded with the U.S. and not Europe.
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Mancharia after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
San Francisco School Board Incident
1906 - Racist schools segregated Chinese, Korean and Japanese students because of anti-oriental sentiment in California.
Elihu Root
Secretary of War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and monderized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador for the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.
Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement.".
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Democracy, efficiency, pragmatism
Three characteristics that the U.S. felt made them superior to other countries. Many U.S. cities in the 1900 to 1920 instituted modern "scientific" political systems, such as the use of professional city managers, to replace inefficient traditional machine politics. The U.S. tried to spread there ideas abroad.
"Muckrakers"
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), Wealth Against Commonwealth
American writer, he won fame for revealing illegal business practices in the U.S. in the late 1800's. Said many corporations put their interest above the good of the workers. Muckraker novel.
Thorstien Velben, The Theory of the Leisure Class
An economist, he believed that society was always evolving, but not that the wealthiest members of society were the "fittest." Attacked the behavior of the wealthy. Muckraker novel.
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), The Shame of the Cities
A muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities.
Frank Norris (1870-1902), The Octopus
A leader of the naturalism movement in literature, he believed that a novel should serve a moral purpose. Wrote The Octopus in 1901 about how railroads controlled the lives of a group of California farmers. A muckraker novel.
Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), History of the Standard Oil Company
This 1904 book exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
John Spargo, The Bitter Cry of the Children
Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate
A muckraker novel, it publicized corruption in the Senate after doing research on government leaders.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), Women and Economics
She urged women to work outside the home to gain economic independence. Attacked the traditional role of homemaker for women.
John Dewey (1859-1952): the school and society, "progressive education", "learning by doing"
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
Oliver Wendel Holmes, Jr
A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the inposition of national regulations and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.
Margaret Sanger (1883-1966)
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Edward Ross (1866-1951)
Sociologist who promoted "social psychology," the belief that social environment affected the behavior of individuals. He believed that practical solutions to current problems should be derived through the united efforts of church, state and science, and that the citizens should actively try to cure social ills rather than sit passively and wait for corrections.
Richard Ely (1854-1943)
He asserted that economic theory should reflect social conditions, and believed that the government should act to regulate the economy to prevent social injustice.
Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
Direct Primary
An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.
16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948)
Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Anti-Saloon League
National organization set up in 1895 to work for prohibition. Later joined with the WCTU to publicize the effects of drinking.
Square Deal
Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers.
Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902
Authorized the use of federal money to develop the west, it helped to protect national resources.
Forest Reserve Act, 1891
First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests.
Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902, George F. Baer
Large strike by coal miners. Baer led the miner's union at the time.
Elkins Act, 1903, rebates
This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates. Rebates are returns of parts of the amount paid for goods or services, serving as a reduction or discount. This act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and transporting them as if they were their own.
Hepburn Act, 1906
It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
"Trustbuster"
Nicknamed for Teddy Roosevelt, this is a federal official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws.
Northern Securities Company case
The Supreme Court ordered this company to dissolve because it was a trust.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Conservation Conference, 1908
An environmental conference to study the nation's natural resources and how to conserve them.
Panic of 1907
Caused by mistrust for and lowered confidence in bankers.
Election of 1908
Taft, Republican, won over Byran, Democrat, because of his support of Roosevelt.
Mark Hanna (1839-1904)
Prominent Republican senator and businessman, he was Republican campaign manager.
Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor
1911 - Increased industrial output by rationalizing and refining the production process.
Wisconsin, "Laboratory of Democracy"
Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Robert M. LaFollette.
Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
Regulatory commissions
Formed to set safety standards and to enforce fair practices of business competition for the sake of the U.S. public.
Florence Kelley, consumerism
Founded the National Consumer's League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers from being cheated or harmed by big business.
Home Rule for cities
The idea was that the people of a city should decide how the city is run.
Tom Johnson, Sam (Golden Rule) Jones, Brand Witlock, Hazen Pingree
Mayors for social reform, they wanted a reform of values over more legislation.
City Manager Plan, Commission Plan
Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management of cities with trained professional urban planners and managers.
William Howard Taft
27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.
Department of Labor
Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909
With the fear of foreign competition gone, it lowered rates to 38%. Democrats felt it did not go far enough and passed the Underwood Tariff in 1913 to further lower taxes.
Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
Uncle Joe Cannon (1836-1926), Old Guard
Speaker of the House, he could make or break legislation form 1903 to 1910. He represented the Old Guard, which controlled Congress, and his arbitrary tactics led to the adoption of resolutions in 1910 limiting the power of the Speaker.
Senator George Norris (1861-1944)
Congressman from Nebraska, he was a reformer Republican who helped lead the rules change of 1910 which ended the arbitrary power of the Speaker. Known as the father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, he was author of the 20th Amendment. Later, while in the Senate, he was an isolationist who tried to keep the U.S. out of WW I.
Rule of Reason: Standard Oil case, American Tobacco case
1911 - Supreme Court allowed restrictions on competition through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
"Dollar Diplomacy"
Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
Secretary of State Knox (1853-1920)
Developed dollar diplomacy with Taft, he encouraged and protected U.S. investment abroad.
Manchurian Railroad Scheme
The U.S. planned to build a railroad to transport American products into China. It would have allowed the U.S. to corner the China market.
Roosevelt's Osawatomie, Kansas speech
Teddy Roosevelt's speech given in Kansas on his Square Deal and "Big Stick" foreign policy. Roosevelt said, "speak softly and carry a big stick.".
Taft-Roosevelt split
They split over idealogy. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue. Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912.
Bull Moose Party
The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.
Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom.".
Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism
A system in which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life
Editor who wrote The Promise of American Life about government authority being used to balance economic activity. This was the basis for Theodore Roosevelt's "New Nationalism.".
Election of 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, Debs, issues
Wilson, Democrat beat Roosevelt, Progressive (Bull Moose), Taft, Republican and Debs, Socialist. The issues were the economy and growing conflict in Europe.
Daniel DeLeon, IWW, Wobblies, "Big Bull" Haywood
DeLeon denounced populists because they believed in free enterprise. Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
Pujo Committee
A committee formed to decide the fate of the Philippine Islands after the Spanish-American War.
Federal Reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Underwood-Simmons Tariff (October 13, 1913)
Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.
Income tax
The first step toward building government revenues and redistributing wealth, a tax that was levied on annual income over a specific amount and with certain legally permitted deductions.
Federal Trade Commission, Cease and Desist Orders
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
Clayton Antitrust Act, labor's Magna Carta (1914)
Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925)
Served as Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913-1915, he resigned in protest of U.S. involvement in WW I.
Arbitration Treaties
Negotiated by U.S. using arbitration, the mediation of a dispute, Taft promoted these agreements as an alternative to war in Latin America and Asia.
Panama tolls dispute
Dispute over canal toll charge between the U.S. and Panama.
Colonel House
He was openly pro-British and was sent to Europe by Wilson to mediate. He would tolerate no interference in matters of foreign policy.
Louis Brandeis (1856-1941), "Brandeis Brief"
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.
LaFollette Seaman's Act
LaFollette was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin. He protested the cruel treatment that sailors received and led the fight for this act.
Federal Highways Act, 1916
Passed by Wilson, it provided federal money to build roads. It helped to provide competition to the railroads' monopoly on public transportation.
Adamson Act, 1916
Wilson pushed passage of this act which mandated an eight hour workday and time and a half for overtime.
Smith-Lever Act, Smith-Hughes Act (1917)
Established the U.S.'s first Food Administration with the authority to fix food prices, license distributors, coordinate purchases, oversee exports, act against hoarding and profiteering, and encourage farmers to grow more crops.
Virgin Islands Purchased (1917)
U.S. bought them from Denmark and built a naval base to protect the Panama Canal and to prevent Germany's seizure of islands during WWI.
Jones Act, 1916 (Philippine)
Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
Jones Act, 1917 (Puerto Rico)
1917 - Puerto Ricans won U.S. citizenship and the right to elect their own upper house.
Mexican Revolution, Diaz, Huerta, Carranza
Diaz was ruler of Mexico for 34 years, and caused much terror and bloodshed. Many people fled to the U.S. to plan a revolution. Huerta, in 1913, overthrew Diaz as dictator and had him murdered. Carranza was the leader of the forces against Huerta. The Mexican Revolution was an unstable situation that led to distrust between the U.S. and Mexico.
Mexican Migration to the U.S
In the 1800's, Mexicans began moving north to work in agriculture. In the 1920's, they moved into the cities. Men outnumbered women. They faced racial discrimination from Whites.
"Watchful Waiting"
Often said by President Monroe during the U.S.'s isolationism period, when the U.S. was trying to stay out of the affairs of other countries in order to avoid war.
ABC Powers (1899)
Name given to Argentina, Brazil and Chile. They tried to maintain peace in South and Central America.
Pancho Villa, General Pershing
1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.
Archangel Expedition (1917)
U.S. sent troops to the Soviet cities of Murmansk and Archangel to reinforce White Russians (non-Communists). The U.S. troops did not fight Communists, but instead defended the ports.
"Sick Man of Europe," Ottoman Empire, Balkan Wars
Because the Ottoman Empire's internal authority had broken down, it was not able to keep order in Macedonia and Albania, and the Balkans were on the verge of war. After the second Balkan war, Bulgaria was forced to surrender much of the territory it won in the first Balkan war.
Triple Entente; Allies
Britain, France and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection.
Triple Alliance; Central Powers
Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente.
Loans to the Allies
During WWII, loans were offered under the Lend-Lease Act, which became law March 11, 1914. The U.S. spent $54 billion.
British blockade
Declared a loose, ineffectual and hence illegal blockade, it defined a broad list of contraband which was not to be shipped to Germany by neutral countries.
Lusitania, Arabic Pledge, Sussex Pledge
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
Election of 1916: Hughes, Wilson, issues
The Democrats emphasized a program of domestic reform. Charles Evans Hughes left the Supreme Court to challenge Wilson, a democrat.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries.
Zimmerman note (1917)
Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.
Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik
After years of oppression, the peasants rebelled against the czars. The first government was democratic and weak, so another revolution overthrew that government and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI (The Germans may have aided his rise to power so they would not have to fight on two fronts).
War declared, April 1917
U.S. declared war on Germany due to the Zimmerman telegram and the attack on the Lusitania.
"Make the world safe for democracy"
Wilson gave this as a reason for U.S. involvement in WWI.
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
Bond drives
Campaigns to get people to but government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds.
War Industries Board
The most powerful agency of the war, it had to satisfy the allied needs for goods and direct American industries in what to produce.
Bernard Baruch
Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.
Herbert Hoover, Food Administration
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.
Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
Eugene V. Debs imprisoned
Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.
AEF
American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.
Selective service (1917)
Stated that all men between the ages of 20 and 45 had to be registered for possible military service. Used in case draft became necessary.
Black migration to northern cities
During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.
Aims of Allies and U.S. at Peach Conference
Allies wanted Germany to pay reparation for costs of war. Wilson brought 14 points, but only one was accomplished. The harsh punishment sent Germany into a depression and aided the rise of Hitler.
Wartime manpower losses
WWI involved violent, modern weapons and old fighting styles. With so many men at war, nations needed other people to work in the factories and other wartime industries.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
Congressional elections of 1918
The 66th Congress, under President Wilson. He begged people to elect Democrats so that they could support his foreign policy initiatives in Congress, but the public rejected him. The senate had 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans and the House had 216 Democrats, 210 Republicans and 6 others.
Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Versailles Delegation
Led by Wilson, it fought for the inclusion of the 14 Points. Only one to be included was the League of Nations.
Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando
Leaders of the four most influential countries after World War I - U.S., Britain, France and Italy, respectively.
League of Nations
Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Collective Security
An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.
New Nations, self determination
After WW I, Germany, Eastern Europe and the western portion of the former Russian Empire split into new countries. Wilson wanted them to have their own governments.
Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Mandate system
A half-way system between outright imperial domination and independence, it was used to split Germany's empire after WW I.
Article 10 (Article X) of the Versailles Treaty
Created the League of Nations.
Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty
One of the more controversial articles, it dealt with the legal liability of Germany vs. the moral liability.
Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
"Irreconcilables": Borah, Johnson, LaFollette
Some Senators would have been willing to support the League of Nations if certain reservations were made to the treaty. The "Irreconcilables" voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations.
Red Scare, Palmer raids
In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans feared Communism. In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.
Strikes: 1919, coal, steel, police
In September, 1919, Boston police went on strike, then 350,000 steel workers went on strike. This badly damaged the unions.
Inflation during WW I
Caused by increased taxes and the government borrowing money directly from citizens.
Election of 1920: candidates, issues
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
Brief depression, 1920-1921
Two years after WW I, prices went up and consumers stopped buying. Unemployment rose from 2% to 12% and industry and export trade halted.
Election of 1920: candidates, issues, vice-presidential candidates
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
Normalcy
Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
Provided for the return of railroads to private control, widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Harding scandals: Charles Forbes
Forbes served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. He took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.
Harding scandals: Harry Daugherty
Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.
Harding scandals: Secretary of the Interior Fall
Fall leased government land to the oil companies (Teapot Dome Scandal) and was convicted of accepting a bribe.
Harding scandals: Teapot Dome
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
Harding scandals: Harry Sinclair
He leased government land to the oil companies and was forced to resign due to the investigation. He was acquitted on the bribery charges.
Harding's death, Coolidge takes over
August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over.
Bureau of the Budget
Created in 1921, its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, tax cuts
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
Senator George Norris (1861-1944), Muscle Shoals
He served in Congress for 40 years and is often called the Father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, a series of dams and power plants designed to bring electricity to some of the poorest areas of the U.S., like Appalachia.
Election of 1924: candidates
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.
Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
Progressive Party
The popular name of the "People's Party," formed in the 1890's as a coalition of Midwest farm groups, socialists, and labor organizations, such as the American Federation of Labor. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax.
McNary-Haugen Bill, vetos
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
Federal Farm Board
Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought, flood, or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Election of 1928: candidates, personalities, backgrounds
Herbert Hoover, the Republican, was a Quaker from Iowa, orphaned at 10, who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith, the Democrat, was a Catholic from New York, of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.
Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925
Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
Henry L. Mencken, editor of the magazine, The American Mercury
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.
"The Lost Generation"
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.
F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbit
He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society. The first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town. Babbit (1922) focuses on a typical small business person's futile attempts to break loose from the confinements in the life of an American citizen.
Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy
Foremost American writer in the Naturalism movement, this book, written in 1925, criticized repressive, hypocritical society. It tells about a weak young man trying unsuccessfully to rise out of poverty into upper class society who is executed for the murder of his pregnant girlfriend.
Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I.
T.S. Elliot, "The Waste Land"
One of the most influential poets of the early 20th century, he had been born in St. Louis, Missouri, but moved to England after college and spent his adult life in Europe. The poem, written in 1922, contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. Displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.
Sigmund Freud's Theories
An Austrian physician with new ideas on the human mind. One of the founders of the modern science of psychiatry, discovered the subconscious. Believed that the mind is divided into 3 parts: id - primitive impulse; ego - reason which regulates between the id and reality; and superego - morals.
KDKA, Pittsburgh
One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.
Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone
Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act - 1919: Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition. Al Capone: In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.
Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.
Fundamentalists
Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.
Immigration Acts, 1921, 1924, Quota System
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
Sacco and Vanzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy, Bobby Franks, in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow, they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses, they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.
Billy Sunday (1863-1935)
Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Scopes trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan (1925)
Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
Henry Ford, the Model T, Alfred P. Sloan (1913)
Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.
Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959)
Motion picture producer and director, he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.
The Jazz Singer (1927)
The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.
Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), Charlie Chaplin
Valentino, a romantic leading man, was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.
New Woman, Flappers (1920's)
Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.
Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance, he was influenced by jazz music.
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940), Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974), Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
Twenty-One Demands
Name for Japan's demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement, a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Washington Disarmament Conference, 1921-1922
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S., Japan, Britain, and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
5-3-1 ration
Tonnage ratio of the construction of large ships, it meant that Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships in Japan, and Japan could only have 3 ships for every 5 ships in the U.S. Britain, U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
World Court
The judicial arm of the League of Nations, supported by several presidents.
Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Dawes Plan, Young Plan
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Causes of the depression
Much debt, stock prices spiralling up, over-production and under-consuming - the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S.
Depression as an international event
Europe owed money. Germany had to pay, but did not have the money.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
Pushed by Congress in 1922, it raised tariff rates.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930
Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, RFC
Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.
Bonus Army
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
"Hooverville"
Name given to the makeshift shanty towns built in vacant lots during the Depression.
Clark Memorandum
1928 - Under Secretary of State Reuben Clark, 286 pages were added to the Roosevelt Corollary of 1904.
London Naval Conference
1909 - International Naval Conference held in London to adopt an international code of conduct for naval warfare.
Hoover Moratorium
June 30, 1931 - Acting on President Hoover's advice, the Allies suspended Germany's reparation payments for one year.
Manchuria, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
1932 - Japan's seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover's Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to China's territory, nor any impairment of China's sovereignty.
Mexico's nationalization of oil
1938 - Mexico nationalized oil fields along the Gulf of Mexico which had been owned by investors from the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands because the companies refused to raise the wages of their Mexican employees.
Ambassador Morrow
Dwight Whitney Morrow served as the U.S. Ambassador to Mexico from 1927 to 1930, during the Mexican-American diplomatic crisis.
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.
Norris-LaGuardia (Anti-Injunction) Act, 1932
Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.
Election of 1932: candidates, issues
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
Twentieth Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
Wickersham Commission
National Law Enforcement Commission, so named after its chair, George Wickersham, it was a national commission on law observance and enforcement created by Hoover in 1929. Its 1930 report recommended the repeal of Prohibition.
Twenty-First Amendment
Passed February, 1933 to repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized light beer. Took effect December, 1933. Based on recommendation of the Wickersham Commission that Prohibition had lead to a vast increase in crime.
"Bank Holiday"
March 11, 1933 - Roosevelt closed all banks and forbade the export of gold or redemption of currency in gold.
Hundred Days
March 9, 1933 - At Roosevelt's request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reform laws submitted by the President for Congressional approval. It actually lasted only 99 days.
"Relief, recovery, reform"
The first step in FDR's relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of businesses.
Brain trust
Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.
Emergency Banking Relief Act, 1933
March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures the accounts of depositors of its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.
Gold Clause Act, 1935
It voided any clause in past or future contracts requiring payment in gold. It was enacted to help enforce 1933 legislation discontinuing the gold standard and outlawing circulation of gold coin.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA)
The chief measure to promote recovery was the NIRA. It set up the National Recovery Adminstration and set prices, wages, work hours, and production for each industry. Based on theory that regulation of the economy would allow industries to return to full production, thereby leading to full employment and a return of prosperity.
National Industrial Recovery Administration (NIRA)
Founded in 1933 to carry out the plans of the National Industry Recovery Act to fight depression. It established code authorities for each branch of industry or buisness. The code authorities set the lowest prices that could be charged, the lowest wages that could be paid, and the standards of quality that must be observed.
National Recovery Administration, "The Blue Eagle"
The NRA Blue Eagle was a symbol Hugh Johnson devised to generate enthusiasm for the NRA codes. Employers who accepted the provisions of NRA could display it in their windows. The symbol showed up everywhere, along with the NRA slogan "We Do Our Part.".
Hugh Johnson
Director of the NRA.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), Second AAA
1933 - The AAA offered contracts to farmers to reduce their output of designated products. It paid farmers for processing taxes on these products, and made loans to farmers who stored crops on their farms. The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
1936 - The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation paymnets to farmers who would remove land from production.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Created in April 1933. Within 4 months, 1300 CCC camps were in operation and 300,000 men between ages 18 and 25 worked for the reconstruction of cities. More than 2.5 million men lived and/or worked in CCC camps.
Federal emergency Relief Administation (FERA)
Appropriated $500 million for aid to the poor to be distributed by state and local government. Harry Hopkins was the leader of FERA.
Civil Works Admnistration (CWA)
Hired unemployed workers to do make-shift jobs like sweeping streets. Sent men ages 18-24 to camps to work on flood control, soil conservation, and forest projects under the War Department. A small monthly payment was made to the family of each member.
Public Works Administration (PWA), Harold Ickes
Under Secertary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA distributed $3.3 billion to state and local governments for building schools, highways, hospitals, ect.
Works Progress Administration (WPA), Harold Hopkins, Federal Arts Project
The WPA started in May 1935 and was headed by Harold Hopkins. It employed people for 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed). The Federal Arts Project had unemployed artists painting murals in public buildings; actors, musicians, and dancers performing in poor neighborhood; and writers compiling guide books and local histories.
Home Owners' Local Corporation (HOLC)
Had authority to borrow money to refinance home mortgages and thus prevent forclosures. It lent over $3 billion to 1 million homeowners.
Federal Housing Authorities (FHA)
1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in sercurities trading.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Senator Norris
A public corporation headed by a 3-member board. The TVA built 20 dams, conducted demonstration projects for farmers, and engaged in reforestation to rehabilitate the area.
Rural Electrificaion Committee (REA)
May 1936 - Created to provide loans and WPA labor to electric cooperatives to build lines into rural areas not served by private companies.
National Youth Association (NYA)
June 1935 - Established as part of the WPA to provide part-time jobs for high school and college students to enable them to stay in school and to help young adults not in school find jobs.
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Recognition of the U.S.S.R (November 1933)
In an effort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated. The financial results were disappointing.
Section 7A of the NRA
Provided that workers had the right to join unions and to bargain collectively.
Wagner Act (May 1935)
Replaced Section 7A of the NIRA. It reaffirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Created to insure fairness in labor-managment relations and the mediate employers' desputes with unions.
Fair Labor Standards Act, maxium hours and minimum wage
June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), John L. Lewis
Originally formed by leaders within the AFL who wanted to expand its principles to include workers in mass produciotn industries. In 1935, they created coalation of the 8 unions comprising the AFL and the United Mine Workers of America, led by John L. Lewis. After a split within the organization in 1938, the CIO was established as a separate entity.
Sit-down strikes
The strikers occupied the workplace to prevent any production.
Dust Bowl, Okies, John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
1939 - Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath was about "Okies" from Oklahoma migrating from the Dust Bowl to California in the midst of the Depression.
Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
The nation's first woman cabinet member.
Elanor Roosevelt
A strong first lady who supported civil rights.
Keynesian Economics
The British economist John Maynard Keynes believed that the government could pull the economy out of a depression by increasing government spending, thus creating jobs and increasing consumer buying power.
Deficit spending
FDR's admnistration was based on this concept. It involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, and ultimately employment by pouring billions of dollars of federal money into the economy even if the government didn't have the funds, and had to borrow money.
Monetary policy, fiscal policy
In monetary policy, government manipulates the nation's money supply to control inflation and depression. In fiscal policy, the government uses taxing and spending programs (including deficit spending) to control inflation and depression.
Revenue Act (1935)
Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance, large gft, and capital gains taxes.
Liberty League
Formed in 1934 by conservatives to defend business interests and promote the open shop.
Coalition of the Democratic Party: Blacks, unions, intellectuals, big city machines, South
Union took an active role providing campaign funds and votes. Blacks had traditionally been Republican but 3/4 had shifted to the Democratic party. Roosevelt still recieved strong support from ethnic whites in big cities and Midwestern farmers.
Huey Long, Share the Wealth, Gerald K. Smith
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor Gerald K. Smith lacked the ability to be a strong head of the society.
Father Charles Coughlin
Headed the National Union for Social Justice. Began as a religious radio broadcaster, but turned to politics and finance and attracted an audiance of millions from many faiths. Promoted inflationary currency, anti-sematism.
Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
Election of 1936: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rebublican - Governor Alfred Landon, Union Party - William Lemke
Issues were the New Deal (which Landon criticized as unconstitutional laws), a balanced budget, and low taxes. Roosevelt carried all states but Maine and Vermont.
Literary Digest Poll (1936)
An inaccurate poll taken on upcoming the presidential election. It over-represented the wealthy and thus erroneously predicted a Republican victory.
Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
Social Security Act
One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.
Court-packing plan
Because the Supreme Court was striking down New Deal legislation, Roosevelt decided to curb the power of the Court by proposing a bill to allow the president to name a new federal judge for each who did not retire by age 70 and 1/2. At the time, 6 justices were over the age limit. Would have increased the number of justices from 9 to 15, giving FDR a majority of his own appointees on the court. The court-packing bill was not passed by Congress.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Began to vote with the more liberal members in the liberal-dominated Supreme Court. In June a conservative justice retired and Roosevelt had an opportunity to make an appointment, shifting the Court's stance to support of New Deal legislation.
"Conservative Coalition" in Congress
1938 - Coalition of conservative Democrats and Republicans who united to curb further New Deal legistators. Motivated by fears of excessive federal spending and the exspansion of federal power.
Robinson-Patman Act (1937)
Amended federal anti-trust laws so as to outlaw "price discrimination," whereby companies create a monopolistic network of related suppliers and vendors who give each other more favorable prices than they do others.
Miller-Tydings Act (1937)
Amended anti-trust laws to allow agreements to resell products at fxed retail prices in situations involving sales of trademarked good to a company's retail dealers.
Hatch Act (1939)
Prohibited federal office holders from participating actively in political campaigns or soliciting or accepting contributions.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923)
The hospital fired employees because it didn't want to pay them what was reqired by the minimum wage law for women and children.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Benjamin Gitlow was arrested for being a member of the Communist party. The New York court upheld the conviction.