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Chromosome theory of inheritance

Mendelian genes ave specific loci on chromosomes, and it's the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment

Wild type

Normal phenotype for a character (most common in natural populations)

Sex-linked genes

Genes located on the sex chromosome

Linked genes

genes located on the same chromosome

Genetic recombination

Production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from two parents

Parental types

offspring that inherit a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes


Offspring with new combinations of characters

Genetic map

ordered list of genetic loci along a particular chromosome

Linkage map

genetic map based on recombination frequencies

Map units

1% recombination frequency

Cytological maps

locate genes with respect to chromosomal features (locations)

Barr body

compact object (inactive X chromosome condenses to)


occaional mishap, members of homologous chromoses don't move apart properly during meiosis I : sister chromatids don't separate during meiosis II


Offspring having abnormal chromosome number


Chromosome present in triplicate (aneuploid cell)


Chromosome is missing


Chromosome alteration


Chromosmal fragment lacking a centromere is lost during cell division


Fragment becoming attached as an extra segment to a sister chromatid


Chromosomal fragment reattaching to the original chromosome (reverse orientation)


Fragment joins a nonhomologous chromosome

Genomic imprinting

A gene on one chromosome is silenced: allele on homologous chromose is free to be expressed

Fragile X syndrome

Physical appearance of abnormal X chromosome

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