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micro ch. 7 8 9 12 13
Terms in this set (91)
The use of chemical reactions powered by the absorption of light to yield energy.
organism that can reduce CO2 to produce organic carbon for biosynthesis
Metabolism that yields energy from oxidation-reduction reactions without using light energy.
organism that uses external sources of organic carbon compounds for biosynthesis
lower activation energy
cellular breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules, releasing energy.
oxidation is loss, reduction is gain. involve the transfer of electrons
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
the production of ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation, using organic compounds as both electron donors and electron acceptors
the oxidation of reduced organic electron donors through a series of membrane-embedded electron carriers to a final electron acceptor.
3 energy pathways
1. glycolysis 2. kreb cycle 3. TCA cycle
an electron transport chain that uses diatomic oxygen as a final electron acceptor and generates a proton gradient across a membrane for the production of ATP via ATP synthase
proton motive force (PMF)
The potential energy of the concentration gradient of protons (hydrogen ions, H+) plus the charge difference across a membrane.
the complete genetic content of an organism
DNA does 2 things
1. copies itself accurately to retain traits that enable it to survive 2. read and copied to RNA (mRNA) to make proteins specific to that organism
part or all of an organisms genome
double stranded, consists of A-T and C-G complementary base pairs
a distinct series of nucleotides within DNA that has a distinct function
RNA molecule that encodes a protein of one or more specific genes
a collection of genes that are in tandem on a chromosome and are transcribed into a single RNA
noncoding dna regulatory region immediately upstream of a structural gene needed for transcription initiation
a sequence of nucleotides that encodes a functional RNA molecule
an extrachromosomal genetic element that may be present in some cells
horizontal gene transfer
passage of genes from one genome into another non progeny genome
heritable change in DNA
one of a group of genes or proteins with shared ancestry and whose DNA sequences and amino acids sequences are similar
the enzyme that that copies dna
a set of three nucleotides within mRNA that encodes a particular amino acid.
Types of mutations
substitution, insertion & deletion, inversion
A strain of a microorganism that has an abnormally high frequency of mutations.
separates nucleic acids or proteins on the basis of their size and charge
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs)
Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes).
a molecule of dna into which exogenous dna can be inserted to be cloned. plasmid. virus.
the internalization of free dna from the environment into bacterial cells.
a short sequence fluorescent (can be radioisotope are an enzyme that reacts with a detactable substrate) probe complementary to the target DNA (food contaminant)
polymerase chain reaction amplification
a method to amplify dna in vitro by using many cycles of dna denaturation, primer annealing and dna polymerization with a heat stable polymerase
technique to read the sequence of base pairs in a dna molecule
enzyme responsible for synthesizing an RNA copy from a dna template during transcription
an rna molecule that encodes a protein
A synthetic copy of DNA made using messenger RNA as the template for reverse transcriptase.
by protein repressors, activators, and alternative sigma factors
repressor proteins regulate translational initiation
modify protein structure
the internalization of free dna from the environment into bacterial cells
able to take up dna from the environmen (strep. pneumoniae in Griffth's experiment)
Reported in 1928 by Fredrick Griffith, was the first experiment suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation. (Steptococcus pneumoniae.)
horizontal gene transmission involving cell to cell contact
the transfer of host genes between bacterial cells via a bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
A phage-mediated gene transfer process in which any donor gene can be transferred to a recipient cell.
transaction in which the phage can transfer only a specific, limited number of bacterial donor genes to the recipient cell
a transposable dna element that contains genes in addition to those required for transposition
the classification of organisms on the basis of their genetic relatedness
the mechanism by which a change occurs in the frequency of genes in a population under environmental conditions that favor some genes over others
degenerative or reductive evolution
the loss or mutation of dna encoding traits that are not under any selection pressure
an organism that lives as a symbiont inside another organism
recognition of different classes of life
the recognition of the class of a given microbe isolated in pure culture
Dr. King Phillip Came Over for Great Spaghetti
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
a tool for identifying organisms, in which a series of yes/no decisions successively narrows down the possible categories of species
hepatitis c (HCV)
is the most prevalent blood-borne disease in the US
a cell free zone on a lawn of bacterial cells cause by a viral lysis
the movement of a pathogen from one host to another
the species that can be infected by a given pathogen
The release of a viral genome from its capsid, following entry of the virion into a host cell.
A viral glycoprotein that connects the membrane to the capsid or the matrix and may be involved in viral binding to host cell receptors.
an infectious naked nucleic acid
an infectious agent that causes propagation of misfolded host proteins, consists of a defective version of the host protein
Random mutations in a viral genome that cause minor changes in the structure of viral surface antigens, such as influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. The consequence is a new viral strain that might better evade the host immune system.
an enzyme that produces a double stranded dna molecule from a single stranded rna template
the rupture of the cell by a break in the cell wall and membrane
viral genome integrates into and replicates with the host and genome but can initiate lysis
bacteriophage that reproduces entirely by a lytic cycle
a phage capable of lysogeny
a phage genome that has integrated into bacterial host genomes
viruses need to grow within a host cell
A process by which all microorganisms, including spores, are destroyed.
the removal of pathogenic organisms from inanimate surface
the removal of pathogens from living tissues
killing or removing of disease producing organisms through the safe disposal of waste material and by disinfection and proper cleaning
autoclave: 121 C for 20 min
the heating of food at a temp. and time combination kill pathogens like mycobacterium tuberculosis
factors that influence the efficacy of chemical agents
1. organic matter 2. kind of organism present 3. corrosiveness 4. stability, odor and surface tension
a molecule that can kill or inhibit the growth of selected microorganisms, usually reserved for chemotherapeutic agents that affect bacteria
antibiotics used in combinations whose mechanisms of action complement one another
antibiotics used in combinations whose mechanisms of action interfere with one another
only used topically to prevent or treat infections, dissolves the inner membrane like a detergent
four ways microbes can become resistant to antibiotics
1. modify the target so it no longer binds to an antibiotic
2. destroy the antibiotic before it gets into the cell
3. add modifying groups that inactive the antibiotic
4. pump the antibiotic out of the cell
his treatment regimens
highly active antiretroviral therapy
6 categories of available anti fungal agents:
polyenes, azoles, allylamines
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