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58 terms

Biology

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Primary function of DNA in cells
store information that tells the cells which proteins to make.
Hydrogen bonds
the two strands of a DNA molecule are held together
Adenine
according to the base pairing rules, guanine binds with
adenine ribose phosphate
which of the following is not a correct structure of a nucleotide
the percentage of adenine in DNA is
equal to the percentage of thymine
what are the three parts of a DNA nucleotide and how are they connected to each other
3 deoxribose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base
if 15% of the nucleotide in a DNA molecule contains guanine, what percentage of the nucleotides contain each of the other three bases
the 15% is cytosine because they are equal and 35% each thymine and adenine
why is complementary base pairing important in DNA structure
without complimentary base pairing their would be no structure of a DNA
How did xray diffraction photographs help Watson and Crick determine the structure of DNA?
the xray helped Watson and Crick determined that there is an double helix it wouldnt stick together.
replication fork
is a structure that forms within the nucleus during DNA replication
helicase
are class of enzymes vital to all living organisms they move directly along nucleic acid.
semi conservative replication
describes the method by which DNA is replicated in all known cells
Before replication can take place
the two strands of DNA must seperate
replication of the two DNA strands takes place
in two different directions
in replication in prokaryotes
two replication forks move in opposite directions
a mutation
change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
which of the following enzymes is involved with breaking hydrogen bonds
DNA hellcase
how does replication occur so quickly in eukaryotes
replication occurs so quickly in the eukaroyte because it moves in the same direction. replication occurs simultaneously
why is it important that exact copies of DNA are produced during replication
Its important that exact copies are made so no mutations occur.
How is DNA replication related to cancer
cancer is a mutation in the DNA of an organism
why is it advantageous to have weak hydrogen bonds between complementary bases and strong covalent bonds between phosphate and deoxyribose groups in a DNA molecule?
it is advantageous to have to weak hydrogen bond between complementary bases because they need stronger bases
each nulceotide in a DNA molecule consists of a
phosphate group a five carbon sugar molecule and a nitrogen base
which of the following describes the base pairing rules in DNA
adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine
The areas where DNA separates during replication are called
replication forks
which of the following proofreads the new DNA molecules during replication
DNA polymerases
transcription
DNA to mRNA
translation
mRNA to protein
codon
sequence of three bases in mRNA
anticodon
sequence of three bases in tRNA
genome
DNA and mRNA
five carbon sugar found in DNA nucleotides
Deoxyribose
DNA polymerase
enzyme that adds nucleotides to exposed nitrogen bases
transformation
transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another
Double Helix
is used to describe the shape of DNA
bacteriaphage
a virus that infects bacteria
helicase
enzyme that separates DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the nitrogen bases
nucleotide
name for DMA subunit
complementary
relationship of two DNA strands to each other
virulent
disease causing
base pairing
rules describe the arrangement of the nitrogen bases between two DNA strands
DNA replication
the process by which DNA is copied
transformation fork
is the area that results after the double helix separates during replication
codon
three nucleotide sequence in mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal
translation
RNA directs the assembly of proteins
anticodon
three nucleotides on the RNA that are complementary to the sequence of codon in mRNA
amino acids
a protein is a polymer consisting of a specific sequence
the genetic code specifies the correlation between
an RNA nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence
mRNA codon
during translation, one end of a tRNA molecule pairs with a complementary
nucleus
in a eukaryotic cells, RNA is copied from DNA in this
two amino acids are linked by a peptide bond when
two tRNAs pair with neighboring codons on an mRNA transcript
list in sequence the tRNA anticodons that are complementary to the mRNA sequence
UAC, UA, CGU and UCA no stop
how many amino acids will be in the polypeptide that is initially formed when this mRNA sequence is translated
four
explain why methionine is the first amino acid in every growing polypeptide
RNA transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make protein
describe three way that RNA differs from DNA
RNA directs the assembly of protein, forming protein based on information DNA. DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA
how would a deletion of one nucleotide in the middle of an mRNA transcript affect the polypeptide specified by the transcript
it would change the DNA's genetic make up
nitrogen base
a nitrogen containing molecule having chemical properties of a base
complementary base pair
the standard arrangement of bases in nucleotides in reaction the their opposite pair
pyrimidine
is is heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to berreone and prynidine