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Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

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If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having a single plant with a particularly desirable set of traits, which of the following would be her most probable and efficient route to establishing a line of such plants?
A) Backtrack through her previous experiments to obtain another plant with the same traits.
B) Breed this plant with another plant with much weaker traits.
C) Clone the plant.
D) Force the plant to self-pollinate to obtain an identical one.
Which of the following statements is correct in comparing sexual and asexual reproduction?
A) Asexual reproduction, but not sexual reproduction, is characteristic of only plants and fungi.
B) In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit half of their nuclear genes to each of their offspring.
C) In asexual reproduction, offspring are produced by fertilization without meiosis.
D) Asexual reproduction produces only haploid offspring.
Which of the following statements is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?
A) The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell.
B) The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell.
C) Each diploid cell has eight homologous pairs of chromosomes.
D) A gamete from this species has four chromosomes.
Which of the following statements describes an example of alternation of generations?
A) A grandparent and grandchild each have dark hair, but the parent has blond hair.
B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces a spore by meiosis that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).
C) A diploid animal produces gametes by meiosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization to produce a diploid zygote.
D) A haploid mushroom produces gametes by mitosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization, which is immediately followed by meiosis.
A triploid cell contains three sets of homologous chromosomes. If a cell of a diploid species that normally has 42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following sets of chromosomes?
A) 63 chromosomes in 31 1/2 pairs
B) 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3
C) 63 chromosomes, each with 3 sister chromatids
D) 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosomes
Which of the following processes might produce a human zygote with 45 chromosomes?
A) an error in meiotic anaphase occurring in either an egg or sperm
B) failure of the egg nucleus to be fertilized by the sperm
C) failure of an egg to complete meiosis II
D) incomplete cytokinesis during spermatogenesis after meiosis I
In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. If we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common?
A) length and position of the centromere only
B) length, centromere position, and staining pattern only
C) length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes
D) They have nothing in common except that they are X-shaped.